The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

The Situation in the Central African Republic

The Situation in the Central African Republic

In 2012, the Central African Republic (CAR) entered a state of civil war with the rise of the Seleka, a group of rebels who claim that the CAR government violated the terms of the 2007 peace agreement. The Seleka marched for the capital, Bangui, until a peace agreement was reached between the Seleka and the government in January 2013. Ten days later, hostilities broke out again, and the agreement was broken. The Seleka took the capital in March, suspending the constitution, dissolving the national assembly, and appointing new heads of government. President Bozizé fled the CAR and was later indicted for crimes against humanity and inciting genocide. In April 2013, a transitional council was formed to lead the country towards a presidential election. The Seleka were formally disbanded and another group, the Antibalaka, began to rise to fight local crime. Violence increased in December when the Antibalaka, consisting primarily of Christians and animists, coordinated an attack on Bangui’s Muslim population. In the wake of this attack, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) authorized an increase in the number of peacekeepers deployed to the country. The African Union-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic facilitated the increase from 2,000 to 6,000 peacekeepers with the support of a French-led mission.

 

In January 2014, ex-Seleka government officials resigned and an interim election saw Catherine Samba-Panza elected to the Office of Interim President. The fighting continued and the country saw an additional 3,000 peacekeepers deployed in February. Months later, the UNSC authorized the deployment of 10,000 peacekeepers in September under the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) to fill the gap left by the departure of 5,000 African Union troops. In 2014, several attempts by the international community to broker a ceasefire between ex-Seleka and Antibalaka forces failed. MINUSCA peacekeepers established boundaries between the ex-Seleka and Antibalaka, reducing the fighting to skirmishes. Official elections were successfully held in February 2014, and as a result of an apparent de-escalation of the conflict, the French peacekeeping mission withdrew its troops the following October. Since the 2016 elections, the government of the CAR has had little control outside of the capital, with seven of the ten provinces either held or contested by armed groups including the Antibalaka and ex-Seleka. The 12,300 peacekeepers of MINUSCA now struggle to protect the nation’s citizens, as the ex-Seleka and Antibalaka fight for natural resources. Over 50,000 people fled the country in 2016 as new rebel groups have risen to power. This mass exodus has caused an uptick in refugee outflows from the CAR.

 

At least 820 people have been killed in fighting this year, as of the end of August. Peacekeepers have been endangered, as Moroccan peacekeepers in particular have been marked as a legitimate target by members of the Antibalaka. On August 22, Stephen O’Brien, the United Nations Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, stated that he saw “the early warnings of genocide” and an escalation in violence during his visit to the CAR in July 2017. A ceasefire was signed in June by the CAR government and 14 rebel groups; however, fighting broke out again only days afterward. The many rebel groups, divided on the grounds of religion and resources, and the limited influence of the recognized government of the CAR, both present a difficult challenge to efforts toward stabilizing the nation and preventing further bloodshed.

  • Nataliegilbert
    Nataliegilbert November 12, 2017 Reply

    Country: Sweden
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Natalie Gilbert

    “It is the firm desire of this Government that Sweden be a global role model, in our development, our equality and our leadership on climate change adaptation. A country whose hallmarks are the equal worth of all people, self confidence, solidarity and the belief that it is possible to change the future.”- Margot Wallström

    The situation that has arised in the Central African Republic since 2013 is both disheartening and diabolical. Sweden is deeply disturbed by the state of the Central African Republic citizens and views the actions of the Seleka and anti-balaka as a affront to the human rights of citizens everywhere. Sweden believes that if the right steps are not taken by the United Nations security council in a prompt manner it may result in a continuation of the civil war like conflict, and eventually may amount to genocide. Based on statistics by the Council on foreign affairs over 3,000-6,000 people have been killed by this conflict, 412,000 are internally displaced, and the 2.3 million citizens that are in dire need of assistance. Sweden has a zero tolerance policy towards the action of violence from both sides of Seleka and Anti Balaka conflict, and although we applaud the United States idea on placing sanctions on the Central African Republic to the curtail the conflict, there is little evidence that it will be able to end the problem alone, and the implementation of these sanctions have been poor at best. President Faustin Archange Touadera has been unable to influence his nation, and we can no longer watch as the children of the Central African cry for their loved ones as the hostility among the Seleka and Anti Balaka ravages their home. As nations we need to realize that the problem is not easily fixed, and the alleged actions of peacekeepers against the people they are sworn to deliver from harm is deplorable. Sweden would also like to note that we deeply respect the nation’s sovereignty, and dream for a day when the Central African Republic will be able to conduct peaceful life, however we recognize that without aid from the international community there is no foreseeable end to the conflict at present. What Sweden proposes in the way of action is to:
    Renew and revisit the arms embargo, travel restrictions, and sanctions outlined in the resolution and adopted in January of 2017.
    Launch full investigation into the action of peacekeepers, but continue peacekeeper presence within the country.
    Further evaluate the effectiveness of peacekeepers within the Central African Republic.
    Call upon the nations of Cameroon, Chad, DRC, Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan and Uganda to increase responsibility of refugees from the Central African Republic.
    Further evaluate and commend the actions of MINUSCA.
    Support the EU Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) military training mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM RCA).
    Allow the Central African Republic to work hand in hand for the further success of the country.
    Encourage nations to adopt a similar anti-terrorism policy that Sweden has successfully implemented for the last two years.
    In accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249, Sweden will intensify its efforts to prevent and suppress the financing of terrorism.
    The deliberate actions against humanitarian organizations such as hospitals for the purpose of violence or thievery must be condemned by the international communities. We must foster the cooperation between NGO’S (Mery corp.,Save the Children, etc.) and the Central African Republic.
    Increase aid to the Central African Republic for the explicit use of humanitarian needs to be approved by the Security Council.

    Sweden believes that if all of these issues are to be addressed we will surely be able to experience a brighter future for the Central African Republic.

  • Nataliegilbert
    Nataliegilbert November 12, 2017 Reply

    Country: Sweden
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Natalie Gilbert

    “It is the firm desire of this Government that Sweden be a global role model, in our development, our equality and our leadership on climate change adaptation. A country whose hallmarks are the equal worth of all people, self confidence, solidarity and the belief that it is possible to change the future.”

    The situation that has arised in the Central African Republic since 2013 is both disheartening and diabolical. Sweden is deeply disturbed by the state of the Central African Republic citizens and views the actions of the Seleka and anti-balaka as a affront to the human rights of citizens everywhere. Sweden believes that if the right steps are not taken by the United Nations security council in a prompt manner it will result in a continuation of the civil war like conflict, and will eventually amount to genocide. Based on statistics by the Council on foreign affairs over 3,000-6,000 people have been killed by this conflict, 412,000 are internally displaced, and 2.3 million citizens that are in dire need of assistance. Sweden has a zero tolerance policy towards the action of violence from both sides of Seleka and Anti Balaka conflict, and although we applaud the United States resolution to place sanctions on the Central African Republic to curtail conflict, there is little evidence that it will be able to end the problem alone, and the implementation of these sanctions have been poor at best. President Faustin Archange Touadera has been unable to influence his nation, and we can no longer watch as the children of the Central African cry for their loved ones as the hostility among the Seleka and Anti Balaka ravages their home. As an international community we need to realize that this conflict is not easily fixed by sanctions and half hearted implementation. Furthermore, the alleged actions of peacekeepers against the people they are sworn to deliver from harm is deplorable, and must be put an end to. Sweden would also like reiterate that we deeply respect the nation’s sovereignty, and dream for a day when the Central African Republic will be able to conduct peaceful life, however we recognize that without aid from the international community there is no foreseeable end to the conflict at present. What Sweden proposes in the way of action is to:
    Renew and revisit the arms embargo, travel restrictions, and sanctions outlined in the resolution and adopted in January of 2017.
    Launch full investigation into the action of peacekeepers, but continue peacekeeper presence within the country.
    Further evaluate the effectiveness of peacekeepers within the Central African Republic.
    Call upon the nations of Cameroon, Chad, DRC, Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan and Uganda to increase responsibility of refugees from the Central African Republic.
    Further evaluate and commend the actions of MINUSCA.
    Support the EU Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) military training mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM RCA).
    Allow the Central African Republic to work hand in hand for the further success of the country.
    Encourage nations to adopt a similar anti-terrorism policy that Sweden has successfully implemented for the last two years.
    In accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249, Sweden will intensify its efforts to prevent and suppress the financing of terrorism.
    The deliberate actions against humanitarian organizations such as hospitals for the purpose of violence or thievery must be condemned by the international communities. We must foster the cooperation between NGO’S (Mery corp.,Save the Children, etc.) and the Central African Republic.
    Increase aid to the Central African Republic for the explicit use of humanitarian needs to be approved by the Security Council.

    Sweden believes that if all of these issues are to be addressed we will surely be able to experience a brighter future for the Central African Republic.

  • United_Kingdom
    United_Kingdom November 13, 2017 Reply

    State: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Reuben Glasser
    School: Kalamazoo Central High School

    Conflict has plagued Central African Republic for years. Anti-balaka and Seleka forces have been the major proponents of this war causing much unrest in CAR, and making the region extremely volatile. With the removal of French troops last year the situation has only escalated. Murders, Kidnapping, torture, sexual violence, and recruitment of child soldiers has become altogether too common. The placement of UN troops has descalated some conflicts but has also contained drawbacks. Sexual assault allegations involving UN peacekeeping forces, EU and French forces, and AU forces have been persistent. Along with these allegations, 60,000 cases of gender-based violence were reported to humanitarian agencies in 2015.
    To combat these atrocities we have supported the placement of UN peacekeeping forces along with the EU Military Advisory Mission (which has supplied the Central African government with top of the line advice on military reform, diplomatic support, and financial means to MINUSCA). We also remain one of the largest humanitarian donors to CAR, providing nearly £58 million of support through NGOs and our government pledging £25 million in aid (this year) to CAR and CAR refugees. Much growth has come with this support, including peaceful democratic elections the creation of the Special Criminal Court in CAR.
    Despite these achievements human rights violations of the UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) occur on a regular basis, and without reparations. Unrest in the political climate has rendered security sector reform stagnant and allegations of sexual assault by UN peacekeeping forces undermined the UN’s ability to lead change (that is not to undercut the seriousness of these assault allegations UN troops are there to support the community not be part of the presence that degrades it). The lack of infrastructure in CAR also is a major issue when delivering aid, with only 2.7% of all roads in CAR being paved NGOs are hard pressed to mobilize outside of the capital.
    To further support CAR we must work with the new government and support their forces with UN peacekeepers. CAR is in desperate need of humanitarian aid and investment in both their infrastructure and communities. UN peacekeeper’s mission to involve ex-Seleka and ex-Antibalaka troops in building roads and infrastructure remain fundamental for CAR’s future and will play a major role in this state’s development.

  • JamesA
    JamesA November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Country: Republic of France
    Delegate: James Aidala
    School: Forest Hills Central High School

    France has remained dedicated to security in the Central African Republic since its independence in 1960, and has assisted the nation with such matters on numerous occasions. After a coup d’êtat in 2013 instated a Séléka leader Michel Djotodia as president, warning signs of genocide became increasingly concerning to France. Beginning November 2013, backed by UNSC Resolution 2127, France began Operation Sangaris, deploying 2,000 troops to assist with efforts in disarming Séléka fighters and stabilizing the nation led by the African Union in MISCA. As of 30th October 2016, France has ended the operation and left 350 personnel to assist with MINUSCA, the current UN peacekeeping mission in the CAR.
    As stated by the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, we support the Central African government of President Touadéra and condemn the actions of armed militant groups as well as all violations of humanitarian law by all parties. We have approved UNSC 2127, beginning MISCA and requesting the instatement of the sanctions regime and panel of experts, UNSC 2149, beginning MINUSCA , and all succeeding resolutions extending their mandates and bulwarking resources including most recently UNSC 2339.
    France supports MINUSCA and supports strengthening of its resources. We call for bolstering of Central African security forces with help from MINUSCA the EUTM CAR, to which we contribute robustly. We believe that the key solution to the problem at hand is a process of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and repatriation of armed groups as well as national reconciliation and resettlement. We request that all of the CAR’s partners thoroughly and efficiently carry out their obligations as detailed in prior resolutions and other agreements. We find security of humanitarian aid and civilian personnel of exigent importance and desire allocation of resources to such efforts. We will not favor heavy intervention from our nation given recent shift to the center and ending of previous operations.

  • DelegatefromUruguay
    DelegatefromUruguay November 14, 2017 Reply

    Topic: The situation in the Central African Republic
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Country: Uruguay
    Delegate: Peyton Klochack
    School: Grand Blanc High School

    The situation in the Central African Republic is alarming and disturbing to the delegation of Uruguay. As of 2017, according to Human Rights Watch 2017 world report, 2.3 million people need humanitarian aid our of a country of 4.6 million and only 1.9 million people of those 2.3 million actually received aid. Despite the increase in UN Peacekeeping over the period of 3 years after African Union forces began to pull out, sectarian violence plagues the nation, with factions of Seleka fighters disbanding and reorganizing, the rise of the 3R and the Anti-Balaka forces disorganizing and reuniting, it is nearly impossible to draw any cease fire on all sides of the conflict, with civilians taking most of the brunt with estimates reaching from 3,000 to 6,000 people killed. The fighting has led to displacement of more than half a million CAR citizens, with 467,800 living in neighboring countries and 384,300 internally displaced, according to Human Rights Watch. On top of all of this, sexual assault is rampant throughout the nation, with acts of sex violence being committed on all sides, including AU, UN and other peacekeeping forces. While MINUSCA has sent troops home based on these allegations and has launched investigations in all cases, these acts have only increased since revelations were first revealed in 2015, we must create a safe environment for victims of these acts to receive counseling and therapy after such a traumatic experience and to prosecute those who commit such acts. While the success of relatively peaceful presidential elections was an improvement in the region, the country remains an unstable, insecure and proven the government of CAR is clear to not have control over their nation and need the international community to step up its commitment to lasting peace in the region.

    While the nation of Uruguay has not established firm relations with CAR, our partners in Africa like Angola and Egypt, nations that are close to CAR and are more familiar with the situation, will be able to establish connections to CAR. Uruguay stands ready to support this committee in whatever resolution it passes both militarily and financially. However, Uruguay would like to see implementation of a plan to care, counsel, and therapy for victims of sexual assault, to create greater and more secure convoy and routes to get food, medicine, doctors and clean water to parts of the nation that desperately need aid by creating multiple secure depots in safe spots in surrounding nations and in the capital of CAR itself and finally increasing overall troop presence in refugee camps and to create better standards for our troops and for the CAR military fighting the war against these groups to finally defeat them. If these ideas are further developed and implemented, then the delegation of Uruguay is more than happy to support such resolutions.

  • Flemiwil001
    Flemiwil001 November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Country: Japan
    Delegate: Mr. William Fleming
    School: Fishers High School

    Japan believes that the best method for resolving conflict in the Central African Republic is with additional peacekeeping forces until the standing government has regained the ability to govern their own land. The modern government of Japan has never dealt with the same level or internal strife as Central African Republic, we have had to deal with terror attacks. The most prevalent attack that we have had came from the cult Aum Shinrikyo in the form of a sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system, killing 12 and injuring thousands. The group had been in the public eye for quite some time, but the police did not have enough evidence to try them for anything, and public opinion was too high to try to challenge the group. When Aum Shinrikyo claimed responsibility, that gave our police force the necessary evidence to conduct raids on their compounds. Though we cannot perfectly understand the situation at hand, we believe that the most effective method for achieving peace in the region is to try to get all parties that are there to have some form of mass peace talk to restore power to the government. This will be incredibly difficult to achieve, due to the number of rebel groups that exist within the nation.

    While this occurs, we have the issues that come with massive rebellions. The health of those in the Central African Republic is poor, especially concerning malaria. The WHO reports that in 2013 26 percent of deaths under the age of 5 were caused by malaria, and overall caused 8 percent of deaths. HIV is also a rapidly rising problem, and is one of the top leading deaths of people overall. Deaths from HIv makeup eleven percent of overall deaths in the Central African Republic, and this number has been the leading cause of death for quite some time now. We also have the rising number of refugees that have come from the rebellions. The UNHCR estimates that over half a million persons have been displaced in total from the war that is inside the Republic. If they are not given the proper sanitation and other necessities, this could end up as another Syrian Refugee Crisis, and we are still seeing the effects of that ordeal.

    Japan believes that the most effective way to resolve this crisis in an orderly fashion is to try to get all of the rivaling factions into the same room to discuss the future of the country. While nations attempt to do this, others must focus efforts on providing aid for those who have been displaced from this war, whether it be for the health of those in camps, or basic necessities, such as food and water to those who have been displaced. No matter which method of support you choose to do, we must stand together and help end the conflict in the Central African Republic.

  • Alexiazolenski
    Alexiazolenski November 14, 2017 Reply

    Security Council
    The Situation in the Central African Republic
    United States of America
    Alexia Zolenski

    In the Central African Republic, violence escalates. Formerly, the CAR constituted peaceful relations between Muslim and Christian sects. In recent years, however, rebel groups, including the Séléka, a primarily Muslim group, and the Anti-Balaka, a primarily Christian group, in fighting for their own purposes, endanger the lives of civilians. The Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Situation of Human Rights in the Central African Republic states that, “this is now no longer just a conflict between the former Séléka and the anti-balaka: every Muslim and every Christian has become a target because they are supposedly linked to one of the armed groups.” According to Reuters, one in five Central African civilians is displaced, while a staggering 2.2 million, or half of the total population, require humanitarian assistance. In addition, increased sectarian conflict, including the deaths of family members and friends, encourages the usage of child soldiers. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 6,000 children are currently being used as spies, fighters, and cooks for rebel groups; these children are also exposed to sexual exploitation. In 2016, an election was held, resulting in the rise of President Faustin-Archange Touadéra. This election, however, has proven negligent amidst increasing violence, and the government fails to protect its citizens. The United Nations, in an effort to remediate the situation, initiated a $920 million dollar peacekeeping mission, termed The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission (MINUSCA). This mission, established after partial efforts within BINUCA and MISCA, is up for renewal on November 15th, 2017. Through careful consideration, the United Nations can resolve these issues.

    The United States of America has taken diligent action against atrocities in the Central African Republic. Currently, the United States supplies $125 million dollars for restoring security, including the supply of non-lethal military equipment and training of officers. In regards to humanitarian assistance, the United States has provided $39 million dollars, $10 million of which contributes to the World Food Program. Another $5 million of this budget supports the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees and the International Committee of the Red Cross, providing assistance and protection to refugees. The United States recognizes the importance of dispelling rumors and spreading accurate information. Therefore, $7.5 million has contributed to conflict mitigation over radio. Another $125,000 supports local community centers and interfaith leaders. As an active member of the Security Council, the United States contributed to the unanimous acceptance of Resolutions 2121 (2013), 2127 (2013), and 2134 (2014), which detail egregious humanitarian violations in the Central African Republic and current efforts to remediate them.

    There are several actions the United Nations can take in order to combat violence in the Central African Republic. First, however, the United States of America must evaluate the efficiency and equality of peacekeeping missions. Currently, the United States comprises 28.47% of United Nations peacekeeping funds, with China, Japan, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom following at 10.25%, 9.68%, 6.39%, 6.28%, and 5.77% respectively. The United States has made a generous contribution. However, this contribution is no longer feasible, in efficiency or parity. In simple terms, the United States can no longer bear the majority of funding for the United Nations, and would encourage other nations to increase their support. Rather that send more peacekeeping missions, the United States believes that addressing the inefficiency of current missions and their success in promoting democracy is crucial. First, the United States encourages the inter-nation establishment of uniform training and vetting processes for UN forces. In recent years, allegations of sexual exploitation and physical abuse have tainted the legitimacy of UN missions. UN peacekeepers are sent to combat violence; violence committed by peacekeepers, therefore, is counterintuitive and unacceptable. Second, the United States desires accountability among peacekeeping squadrons. The United Nations must establish a method to evaluate the performance of troops. Underperforming troops should be terminated or allocated elsewhere. Third, the United States promotes the usage of UN-mandated multinational forces. These forces, spearheaded by individual states rather than the UN Secretariat, allow for greater flexibility in individual contribution. Fourth, the United States supports the disarmament of rebel groups and promotion of democracy, prison regulation, and support of President Faustin-Archange Touadéra. Overall, the United States of America encourages members of the United Nations to increase their individual contributions and work towards the efficiency of peacekeeping missions. Through these efforts, a future of security, prosperity, and democracy is feasible for the Central African Republic.

  • Charlieuchno
    Charlieuchno November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Arab Republic of Egypt
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Charlie Uchno, The Roeper School

    Egypt is troubled with the conflict within the Central African Republic and its many effects on the peoples of Africa. Despite the deployment of well over 10,000 UN peacekeepers and formation of a peace treaty, the Central African Republic remains a fractured country. As observed over the course of history, few conflicts cut deeper than those over religion, and such schism, alongside the limited government of the CAR, makes this an issue which belongs on the forefront of the international community.

    Egypt urges the global community to further efforts to achieve peace in the CAR, advocating for the use of additional peacekeepers and aid. While peacekeepers have had a presence in the country for an extended period, Egypt feels they remain the primary means of achieving stability. Additionally, aid is crucial to those who are affected by the collateral of the ongoing religious conflict, for the conflict in the Central African Republic is not just one of leadership, but one of human rights. With over 412,000 internally displaced persons in 2016, and an additional 206,000 displaced persons thus far in 2017, this human rights crisis has not gone away despite recent efforts.1

    Egypt further calls for cooperation with the African Union to assist and tolerate the Central African Republic in this time of strife. Throughout this crisis, the African Union has served as a first responder, able to quickly deploy troops in difficult environments.2 The African Union also has demonstrated the capacity to communicate with leaders in the CAR, an action which the United Nations has struggled with.2 In continuing to work with and fund the AU, the United Nations will more quickly see the change desired in the Central African Republic.

    Sources:
    1. http://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/central-african-republic
    2. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10246029.2017.1302707

  • Hmsmith996
    Hmsmith996 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Russian Federation
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Team: Royal Oak Model United Nations
    Delegate: Henry Smith

    It is not necessary to restate the current horrific situation in the Central African Republic. Instead, the Russian Federation believes that what is important here is moving forward. Though there are no Russian objections to the current UN response, it is self-evident that it needs to be ramped up.

    The biggest problem in the CAR right now is the risk to civilians – both in the form of genocide as well as less well-organized atrocities. The subversion of the democratic process, while regrettable, is not the UN’s job to fix. As the UN body with the power to violate national sovereignty, the UNSC must realize that this carries a great potential for abuse, and it must take care to respect the CAR as an independent nation. That said, the massive risk to human life posed by the current hostilities more than justifies intervention. The citizens of the Central African Republic are caught between the ex-Seleka faction and the anti-Balaka faction, and it is the duty of the Security Council to protect them.

    Russia asks “What is the responsibility of the UNSC?” While seemingly a broad question, it is the fundamental matter which must be considered. While one may theorize about who will do what in a perfect world, the UNSC must keep in mind the fact that it is sending soldiers into the territory of a member state. What is the scope of that intervention going to be? It is ridiculous and dangerous to send armed men into a war zone without limits. Before any solution is proposed the member states of the Security Council must ask themselves how deeply they are willing to reach into the CAR.
    Furthermore, the Russian Federation has some guidelines as to what it considers acceptable intervention. Firstly, the UN must not be taking a side. For example, an individual in question may be guilty of wrongdoing, but to punish him and not others also guilty is unfair. Justice, applied unevenly, is unjust. Secondly, this must not be a punitive mission. The UN is there to stop bloodshed and nothing more. To go further would be to show contempt for the government of the Central African Republic. And lastly, any and all intervention must be highly specific. The United Nations cannot send forces into a conflict without a very clear mandate. Peacekeepers are not to be a force of their own – they are a tool to prevent fighting and nothing more.

    The Russian Federation strongly believes in the ideals of the United Nations. It believes that genocide is not to be tolerated, that civilian massacres can, and must be, prevented, and that this is the world’s job, not the job of any one State or organization. Russia is optimistic about the future and looks forward to cooperating for the betterment of humanity.

  • Brettmbauman
    Brettmbauman November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Security Council
    Topic: Situation in Central African Republic
    Country: Ethiopia
    Delegate: Mr. Brett Bauman
    School: Forest Hills Northern High School

    The situation in the Central African Republic is an all too familiar one for our world. Two groups with opposing views are unable to settle their differences and this leads to a massive humanitarian crisis with civilians stuck in the middle of an armed conflict. In this case, it is between the ex-Seleka and the anti-balaka groups. These two groups have managed to destabilize an entire country and worsen what seems to be an endless conflict between Muslims and Christians. Sadly, it is most often innocent people who are most harmed in these conflicts, and this can be seen in CAR as children die from malnutrition, aid shipments aren’t making it to the people they are supposed to supply, and hundreds of thousands of refugees are fleeing the country or are being internally displaced.

    Ethiopia, as a country in Central Africa, has experience with these type of crises. However, now Ethiopia stands as a model of cooperation between the tens of millions of Christians and Muslims that live within our borders. The reason for Ethiopia’s stability lies primarily with the economy. Due to strong economic growth and investment in the nation, ethnic tensions and other concerns have largely been very minimal.

    On his recent trip to CAR, the Secretary-General emphasized the need for more funding and the deployment of more peacekeepers to stabilize the situation and ensure that there isn’t a complete relapse into a major humanitarian crisis. The last time the Security Council addressed the issue in CAR was with Resolution 2339 on January 27, 2017 and the situation has escalated considerably since then. Ethiopia shares the concerns of the Secretary General and knowing the volatility of the region, believes that the Security Council should move with expediency to save lives and promote human dignity. Ethiopia believes that an increase in support from developed nations and other humanitarian organizations will allow more supplies to reach the innocent civilians of CAR that are caught in the middle of this horrible conflict. Ethiopia currently provides over 7,500 peacekeeping troops to missions in Africa and calls on other nations to do their fair share in contributing them as well in order to secure humanitarian aid shipments. Sadly, current UN peacekeepers in CAR have been accused of sexual abuse of the people they have been sent to protect. Ethiopia condemns this activity in the strongest terms and agrees with the recent assessment of the situation by the Secretary General that there need to be an increased focus on the UN’s zero-tolerance policy with regard to sexual exploitation. In addition to adding supplies and troops, Ethiopia recognizes that a more long-term solution is necessary to that the people of CAR can begin rebuilding their country and the children of CAR know a life beyond this current narrative of violence. It is difficult to change the minds of people who have been enemies for so long, but without reconciliation and a national conversation regarding ethnicity and religion, the people of CAR won’t be able to live together in peace. Ethiopia believes it is important for the country’s leaders to take charge of the situation and travel the country to try and foster understanding. In areas such as Bangui, where the government has control, the situation is improving. Therefore, if the UN comes along President Touadera, there is a chance of at least short-term stability.

  • Tejaravi
    Tejaravi November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Security Council
    The Situation in Central African Republic
    Plurinational State of Bolivia
    Teja S Ravi

    The issue in Central African Republic (CAR) is controversial and invidious. The violent breakout between the initial Seleka group and the CAR government is deeply concerning as the violence is destroying the stabilization of the country and the safety of the people. According to the World Food Programme, “around 600,000 people were forced to move to other parts of the country to avoid conflict” which is leading to the destabilization and harm for the native people of the CAR nation. In addition, an alarming increase of events like sexual harassment, lack of adequate nutrition, and theft over the last couple years breaks down the stability of the CAR nation. In continuation, as the Seleka group broke down another dangerous group called the Anti Balaka formed. Holding just as much as the Seleka to the CAR nation, the Anti Balaka coordinated attacks harm the safety of the peacekeepers sent previously by the United Nations Security Council. This militia must be stopped for its effects on the CAR nation are grave and they bring an amelioration of violence while tearing down the nation’s stability. The United Nations must take action more action than simply increasing the number of peacekeeping missions to relieve the rampant issue between the CAR nation and its rebel groups.

    Not seeing enough progression in the peace in the CAR nation, Bolivia seeks to find more action being taken to help these native people and stabilize their lifestyles. Effectively summarizing the situation in the Central African Republic, Evo Morales, president of the plurinational state of Bolivia, states the invasions on the government’s “creat[es] chaos” and leads to greater stabilization of the CAR nation. In addition, Sacha Sergio Llorenti Solíz, the Bolivian representative from the UNSC, advocated for the support of the international regions to combine forces to effectively combat the militant groups that are an important danger to the world’s peace. Bolivia also strongly supports the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission (MINUSCA) and wishes for this peacekeeping mission to continue. Also, with MINUSC continuing we hope to see betterment in the training process of the groups in the mission that way the no more than the 820 people that have been killed are killed.

    Bolivia encourages the idea to provide aid to those harmed or have been displaced. We strongly urge all countries to come and gather simple basic necessities for human survivals; According to UN News Centre, Evo Morales strongly expresses that “natural resources, basic necessities must be viewed as human rights.” We strongly condemn terrorism; it is threat to the nation’s world peace and action must be taken to help the innocent citizens of the CAR nation. Bolivia hopes to see advancement; we are strongly disappointed in the regression the world has took. With the strong amelioration of displaced people and refugees, we recommend that the countries come together to peacefully discuss the situation in Central African Republic. We hope to see increased cooperation and support from all the regional forces to combat this rampant issue in the CAR nation with these terrorist and militia groups. With increased cooperation and strengthened communication, we can effectively remove the threat of these militia groups and reduce the destruction occurred and occurring in the Central African Republic.

  • Tkrasny195
    Tkrasny195 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Topic: Conflict in Central African Republic
    Submitted to: United Nations Security Council
    Country: People’s Republic of China
    Delegate: Tyler Krasny

    Without question, the situation unfolding within the Central African Republic can be described as nothing less than a humanitarian crisis. Putting aside country politics, Western agendas, or economic resource motives, we, the UNSC, must strive to immediately alleviate the tension and systemic poverty within the nation before all else. With over 500,000 Central African Republic citizens facing displacement due to the ongoing struggle between ex-Seleka members and Anti-Balaka groups and over 2.4 million in need of humanitarian aid, the situation remains dire despite some hope residing in the neutral government of Touadéra.

    While no conflict can be classified as entirely free of ulterior motives, the situation unfolding in the Central African Republic needs to be treated as nearly to such as possible. In short, China hopes that the major factions in the Central African Republic will earnestly implement the ceasefire commitment, work to unify, and foster an environment for political transition and national reconstruction. Ultimately, this goal can only be achieved without the imposing of interventionist agendas and through the cooperation of all on the Security Council.

    Before looking to the future of the Central African Republic and relief efforts for that regard, we must bolster, refine, and expand current crisis efforts in the nation. Since 2014, the MINUSCA peacekeeping mission has proven instrumental in ensuring stability, yet has contained several key areas with room for improvement. While China has personally contributed to the total of 12,000 peacekeepers deployed to the Central African Republic, and has also provided significant financial aid to the nation, the UN Resolution 2149 must be bolstered. Further, to refine Resolution 2149, the peacekeepers must have much more clearly-defined objectives, with stronger leadership and more involvement of the Central African Republic’s government. Finally, to expand the current crisis efforts, humanitarian efforts must be scaled according to the size of the conflict, as currently efforts serve as a mere bandage to a far-larger wound.

    In summation, the situation in the Central African Republic must be treated as the humanitarian crisis it is, and solved cooperatively with all haste.

  • Schmlea
    Schmlea November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Italy
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Léa Schmitt, East Grand Rapids High School

    Central African Republic has been in turmoil since a violent takeover of power in 2013. The aftermath saw widespread violence as armed militia fought each other and took revenge on the population. The March 2016 election of President Faustin-Archange Touadéra brought an initial lull, but was followed by more fighting in late 2016 and early 2017 between armed groups including ex-Seleka factions and anti-balaka militias – both controlling vast areas of the country. Lasting peace is still some way off as neither the new government nor the large UN force have the means to force armed groups to negotiate and disarm. NGO’s like Crisis Group work to reduce the risk of large flare-ups and help defuse the country’s many conflicts, encouraging international actors to work to weaken armed groups and improve the chances of effective negotiation.
    Italy is the first country to concretely support the alliance between four Nobel Peace Laureates and the World Food Organization, aiming at tackling hunger and violence in the Central African Republic. Italy’s Deputy Foreign Minister Mario Giro made the announcement in Bangui, where is has taken an official visit in the past three days. The Alliance had been launched in May at the UN agency headquarters in Rome. Italy strongly feels that helping CAR is important and they are willing to delegate resources to the nation in need. The Italian government wants to be at the forefront, supporting the reconstruction process in the Central African Republic carried out by international organizations.
    With two million euros, Italy will support the establishment of a community model of a kind, where Christians and Muslims could rebuild and develop together the basis for that agricultural and economic ground that is necessary for the survival of rural communities. Replacing hatred and distrust with an opportunity that generates hope is the basis of an idea born after Pope Francis’ trip in November last year which we want to contribute to realize.

  • TlatoaniReal
    TlatoaniReal November 15, 2017 Reply

    Security Council
    The Situation in the Central African Republic
    Ukraine
    Delegate: Tlatoani Real Rojas
    The Central African Republic has been in mayor social and governmental instability ever since the break out of 2012 civil war. Where the rebel group, Seleka, faced the nation’s government for the violation of the prior peace agreement in 2007. After almost six years of uncertainty regarding the direction of the country, presidential elections were held. Nevertheless, crisis erupted in the country with a new conflict were Muslims were targeted.
    Since January 2014, there have been several military assets movements from the UNSC, with the presence of peacekeepers, as well as from other foreign participants such as the African Union. This has caused a dependency on foreign aid and has left the country on a delicate position, not only on an international scale but internally as well. The main problem with the solutions is that they have been proposed only as short term ones. Furthermore, they have only been focused on the military aspect.
    The delegation of Ukraine believes that solutions regarding the administrative part of the conflict are of paramount importance for the long term view of the problem. Governmental stabilization is also fundamental in the UN problem-solving initiative and a proper distribution of natural resources might bring a significant improvement on it. Deeply concerned about the situation in the Central African Republic, the delegation of Ukraine is willing and encourages other delegations to work together and find proper and viable solutions. Key point of the debate that Ukraine would like to address are: the presence of military assets in the region, the development of strong roots of a governmental organism and humanitarian aid in the areas affected by the belic conflict and its occupants.

  • Katiesundeen
    Katiesundeen November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Senegal
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Katherine Sundeen
    School: Williamston High School

    Starting in 2012, the Central African Republic (CAR) has had ongoing political issues between various groups of rebels and the government. The Seleka people rose up, claiming that the government had violated the peace agreement from 2007. Hostilities broke out, and the president ended up fleeing the country, leading to an investigation that found him guilty for crimes against humanity, and inciting genocide. The governmental transition in 2013 led to the destruction of the Seleka group, and another group, the Antibalaka, arose. This led to more violence, thus prompting the Security Council to send in more Peacekeeping Troops. In 2014, an international attempt at breaking a ceasefire between the ex-Seleka and Antibalaka people failed. In 2016, the French peacekeeping mission withdrew, and the MINUSCA (Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization in the Central African Republic) mission were left at a loss; the CAR’s government had little control outside of their capital. Many people fled later that year, and the war this year has killed at least 820 people. The Moroccan people are in danger, and Stephen O’Brien, the UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian and Emergency Relief Coordinator, says he sees “the early warnings of genocide”.
    Senegal, a primarily Muslim country, feels somewhat defensive of the conflicts on the Bangui people. Despite their Muslim majority, however, Senegal has a secular government, that has been successful since its beginning. Senegal also is home to about 300,000 refugees, and can see many of them coming in from the CAR. The entire situation in the CAR is alarming to Senegal, and needs to be addressed and resolved immediately. While the African Union has pulled out of the country’s conflicts, due to fear of repercussions, Senegal remains as a potential support system to the CAR, financially and militarily.
    As previously stated, Senegal is a successful nation willing to help out other African Nations in need. Though Senegal has a Muslim majority, Senegal urges military support from other first-world nations, such as the United States; Senegal would also be more than willing to provide support. Senegal believes in a “hands-on” approach to this situation, because the UN has tried other methods, and the situation has only become worse. Military intervention, as well as financial help when the CAR needs to recover, is the best option that Senegal sees. Senegal also urges the involvement of the African Union, even though they have pulled out of the country.

  • SafiSyed347
    SafiSyed347 November 16, 2017 Reply

    Country: The Republic of Kazakhstan
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Safi-ur-Rahman Syed
    School: Saginaw Arts & Sciences Academy

    The Central African Republic (CAR) has been in a civil war since 2012, when the Seleka group overran the government due to claims of violating a peace agreement. Since then, two major militant groups, the ex-Seleka (since the Seleka were formally disbanded) and the Antibalaka have taken control over much of the country and have been fighting over ideologies and resources, harming many civilians in the process. 50,000 people have fled as refugees from the CAR and 820 people have died in the conflict. There are currently 12,300 peacekeepers from MINUSCA (Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic) trying to maintain the peace and protect the civilians of the nation. The peacekeepers are also in danger, as members of the Antibalaka have targeted Moroccan peacekeepers.

    The Republic of Kazakhstan disapproves of the bloody civil war that is occurring in the CAR because it violates some of the goals that Kazakhstan plans to achieve with its foreign policy, such as strengthening the peace of global and regional security, and the establishment of a fair world order under the guidance of the UN. The first one is obviously violated with the instability and the bloodshed happening in the CAR at the moment. The second one is violated due to the threats posed to the UN peacekeepers by the militant groups.

    Although Kazakhstan does not have any direct involvement in the region, two of its key partners, the United States and the European Union, do. The United States sent $95 million in humanitarian aid, and is one of the principal donors to the Special Criminal Court, the national justice system in the CAR. The EU is the CAR’s largest donor and has donated €409 million (or $450 million in USD) over five years towards efforts such as humanitarian aid, peacebuilding, and development within the country. The EU also attended the Brussels International Conference which pledged €2.06 billion (or $2.28 billion in USD) overall to the CAR. The EU also approved the establishment of the EUTM RCA, a military training program to train two battalions of the national army. Kazakhstan fully supports the efforts by the U.S. and the EU to maintain peace in the region by supporting the national government and providing aid to the civilians.

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