The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

The Situation in Afghanistan

The Situation in Afghanistan

Instability and armed conflict remains the norm in Afghanistan; those who are native to the region have not ceased to live in chaos. The country has been home to war and violence for centuries, invaded in turn by the Mongols, the Persians, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Most recently, in the 1990s, the Taliban seized control of the country, only to give way to another foreign occupation as members of a NATO coalition entered the country by force. Since 2001, when the Taliban was ousted, the Afghan government has struggled to protect its citizens and provide basic security. At one time, Afghanistan housed more than 100,000 American troops, in addition to forces deployed by other NATO members such as the UK and Germany. While the mission ended in 2014, more than 13,000 foreign troops have remained, tasked with training Afghan military and police forces. While as of late, there have been steps taken toward fair presidential elections by the Independent Election Commission, the overall security situation has declined rapidly in 2017.

 

The conflict has broadened in scope, as increased Taliban activity has been observed throughout the country. The number of instances of armed conflict between the government and Taliban forces increased by 22% in 2016 alone. Throughout 2017, a number of explosions have rocked the country, the most devastating being several improvised explosive devices (IEDs) targeting government officials in Kabul, each of which killed and wounding hundreds of civilians. The number of civilian casualties has increased rapidly, and an estimated 940 civilian deaths in the capital this year have been caused by suicide bombings by the likes of the Taliban and ISIL. The largest attack, the May 31st detonation of an improvised trunk bomb, killed at least 150 people. Schools have been increasingly targeted, resulting in an uptick in child casualties and a decrease in access to education in the country.

 

Violence is not the only issue that the nation faces. Decades of corruption and instability have resulted in a loss of economic independence and a failing private sector. In addition, in 2016 alone, conflict has displaced more than 650,000 Afghans, putting significant pressure on the country’s relationship with neighboring nations. Last year, more than 370,000 refugees returned from Pakistan to their devastated home. Growing instability has also produced a lack of trust in the current administration, headed by President Ashraf Ghani and Prime Minister Abdullah Abdullah, spurring political protests and calls for impeachment. The government responded to the unrest by installing security devices such as additional checkpoints and cameras in Kabul, but attacks continue to take place. Increased violence and armed conflict within Afghanistan is expected, spurred in part by a recent increase in foreign military forces, which will come into more frequent contact with members of the Taliban and ISIL. This increase in violence may well further exacerbate the country’s economic dependence, the displacement of its citizens, and its overall instability in the months to come.

  • Nataliegilbert
    Nataliegilbert November 13, 2017 Reply

    Country: Sweden
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
    Delegate: Natalie Gilbert

    “Terrorism threatens international peace and security, national security and our fundamental rights and freedoms. Every year, numerous terrorist attacks are carried out around the world. Recent years have seen a sharp increase in problems related to foreign terrorist fighters and there is presently no indication that this trend will abate.”- Swedish foreign affairs.

    The conflict in Afghanistan is by no means new; Afghanistan history is undeniably tumultuous, but also culturally rich and successful. Sweden has continually been supportive of Afghan refugees and asylum seekers, and in fact Sweden has the sixth highest refugee population in the world. However, we realize that if the conflict that causes these people to flee their nations need to be confronted, and that accepting these thousands of civilians has in some ways enabled the conflict to continue. Sweden will never turn our back on the Afghan citizens, but it is no secret that Sweden has partaken in deporting Afghan asylum seekers. This is a last resort for us, we want to support every nation and every person and provide them with a community that is safe for them. No one deserves the atrocities that have taken place in Afghanistan due to evolving terrorism. In a perfect world we would be able to offer all refugees the ability to life in Sweden, but it has taken its toll on our economic resources, and we feel that it is time for other nations in the EU to step up and protect Afghan asylum seekers in the way that Sweden has from the beginning of the crisis.
    Sweden has been a willing participant in Operation Enduring Freedom to eliminate the Taliban in Afghanistan, but this struggle is far from over. In recent years Sweden has regrettably had to place sanctions on Afghanistan to ensure that the Taliban is not given the opportunity to continue growth. The most important aspect of the Afghanistan conflict is to eliminate terrorist organizations and foster long-term growth of the nation. Sweden has continually monitored troops in Afghanistan to ensure citizens humanitarian needs are being meet. Sweden understands the full consequence of allowing the conflict in Afghanistan to continue. Although Sweden shares a deep cultural respect for all people and all religions we have a zero tolerance approach to terrorism. Sweden would like to reiterate that we have the utmost respect for the Afghan civilians, however we will not tolerate the actions of terrorist groups on their community, and the international community as a whole. To further address the conflict in Afghanistan Sweden strongly suggests:
    Reassess terms of sanctions against terrorist groups.
    Continue the work of UN sanctions regime 1267.
    Work with Afghanistan government to combat terrorism.
    Revisit and reaffirm the Security Council Resolution 2253 (2015) to also cover ISIL (Da’esh), and the regime is also known as the 1269 regime.
    Support NGOs for humanitarian aid.
    Support the formation of a taskforce in hopes of monitoring long term stability in Afghanistan.

    Sweden believes that the international community must condemn violence in Afghanistan and create a united front against these actions. If these actions are taken Sweden is hopeful for the long term peaceful future of the Afghan citizens.

  • Alexiazolenski
    Alexiazolenski November 13, 2017 Reply

    Security Council
    The Situation in Afghanistan
    United States of America
    Alexia Zolenski

    In Afghanistan, violence is a commonality. Despite victories, specifically the development of a stable Afghan government, the country remains in a dire state. The Taliban continue to perpetuate instability. The Taliban, a terrorist group with a Pashtun majority, took control of Afghanistan’s government in 1994. While in power, they introduced public executions and amputations, required men to have beards, required women to wear burqas, banned media, and banned girls over ten years old from attending school. The Taliban lost power in 2001, but continue to cause trauma, violence, and death. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), the United Nations primary effort in establishing security in Afghanistan, reported that there have been “over 5,200 civilian casualties in just the first half of this year. Over 1,600 of these were fatalities. And tragically, 30 percent of these deaths were children.” In addition, the Taliban and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) recruit child soldiers and perpetuate violence in Afghanistan’s capital, Kabul, including suicide bombings. Not only has violence displaced civilians, but caused increased stability within the Afghan government, including economic struggles. The United Nations, through UNAMA, must take further action to eliminate violence in Afghanistan.

    The United States has endured a long, valiant struggle with the Taliban. On September 11th, 2001, the United States experienced a devastating terrorist attack, led by the al-Qaeda and resulting in 2,996 deaths. 2,996 families, shattered. 2,996 laughs, lost among the rubble of execrable violence. Therefore, the United States declares Afghanistan’s security of utmost importance. The United States has dedicated itself to combating terrorism in Afghanistan for the past sixteen years, the longest military engagement in United States’ history. In 2001, a mere month after the September 11 attacks, the United States overthrew the Taliban in operation “Enduring Freedom”. At one point, the United States deployed 100,000 forces, resulting in the capture of al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. In addition, the United States was a part of the International Security Assistance Force (2001-2014), led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and approved in UN Resolution 1386. 8,400 troops currently serve in Afghanistan as part of the Resolute Support Mission and Freedom’s Sentinel. These troops serve two purposes. First, they work to combat Taliban and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Second, they aid in the training of Afghan troops, stabilizing the Afghan government, headed by President Hamid Karzai. The United States has contributed $783 billion dollars towards combat and reform in Afghanistan, expected to increase to $2 trillion by the end of the United States’ involvement. Recently, President Trump, aided by United States National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster, authorized the deployment of another 3,900 troops. In addition, the United States, in accord with other members of the United States Security Council (UNSC) unanimously approved a year-long mandate extension of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) in Resolution 2344 (2017).

    The United Nations can aid the United States in Afghanistan in several fashions. Originally, President Trump emphasized the importance of removing troops from Afghanistan. However, after much contemplation, he concluded that removing troops from Afghanistan would dishonor the memory of those lost in combat and encourage a breeding ground for terrorists. The United States recently revised its plan in tackling the Afghan situation. First, the United States emphasized military autonomy. Troops stationed in Afghanistan by the United States have more authority to target terrorist networks and combat the Taliban, with less restriction from the government. However, this does not indicate that troops from the United States are less trained or qualified; they are vetted. The United States is simply granting troops more freedom to act upon their qualifications. To aid in this effort, the United States encourages and would accept support from other members of the United Nations in troops, supplies, and support. Second, the United States supports an Afghan-led peace process, including the Kabul Process for Peace and Security Cooperation. The United States encourages the Taliban to launch negotiations and peace talks with the Afghan government; this is the only route to stability. The United States believes that continued pressure upon the Taliban is crucial in achieving these goals. The stability of Afghanistan depends on the stability of the region. The United States encourages the nations surrounding Afghanistan, and other nations in the world, to impose sanctions on countries and officials that do not cease support of terrorist groups. Specifically, the United States denounces Pakistan for its inability to control terrorist sanctuaries on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. The United States is considering reducing foreign aid, imposing sanctions on officials, and allowing military forces to investigate Pakistan’s side of the border. The United States encourages other countries to do the same. Third, the United States encourages the Russian Federation to consider its possible involvement with the Taliban and reduce possibilities for the Taliban to obtain arms. Terrorism increases instability and should never be funded, through arms or otherwise. Fourth, the United States recognizes the gross suppression of women’s rights in Afghanistan and within Taliban forces. Once again, Afghanistan’s stability rests on the stability of the region. The United States urges Afghanistan and surrounding countries to increase the role women are granted in their societies. Fifth, the United States encourages investigation of Afghanistan’s drug trade, including opium and heroin, which fund Taliban forces. As stated by President Ashraf Ghani of Afghanistan, “Without drugs, this war would have been long over. The heroin is a very important driver of this war.” The United States encourages members of the United Nations to supply troops to specifically work towards regaining and preventing the Taliban from securing regions with opium crops. The United States also encourages Afghanistan to vet its police force and government officials, who often become involved with the corruption. Last, the United States supports representatives from the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) investigating and reporting on the situation in Afghanistan. Measures taken by the UNSC are futile unless decisions are made upon factual evidence and data. The more informed the UNSC is, the more efficient and effective are its actions. Though the fight in Afghanistan is far from over, these efforts can help eradicate terrorism, protecting citizens and securing a future of hope for its people.

  • United_Kingdom
    United_Kingdom November 13, 2017 Reply

    State: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Afghanistan
    Delegate: Reuben Glasser
    School: Kalamazoo Central High School

    September 11th, 2001, the World Trade Center was attacked. Nearly 3,000 were killed, 67 of them being British.
    July 7th, 2005, the London Bombing occurred injuring over 700 and killing 52.

    While these attacks will always be remembered, we must also recognize the terror that attacks the stability in Afghanistan daily. Taliban forces actively attempt to destroy the government and infrastructure of Afghanistan creating a multitude of problems for the state.
    To combat the Taliban in Afghanistan a NATO-led (UN-authorised) International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) that operated up until 2014, when troops were withdrew (excluding those that stayed behind to help stabilize the government and train Afghan military forces). The United Kingdom has been proud to be part of this battle to combat terrorism, but more-so we are pleased to make an impact with the Afghan community and help them defend themselves. Recent infrastructure development, access to health care, a surge in public enrollment, and the solidification of democratic values have all lead to a more stable and self-sufficient Afghanistan. We are committed to helping the Afghan people as that is the most important part of stabilizing the country and providing it with the resources to combat their enemies. As a stronger Afghanistan is a stronger United Kingdom and we are grateful to be part of the process of making Afghanistan stronger.

  • JamesA
    JamesA November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in Afghanistan
    Country: Republic of France
    Delegate: James Aidala
    School: Forest Hills Central High School
    From 2001 to the present, France has contributed to and endorsed efforts for the military intervention against terrorists in Afghanistan. After the September 11th attacks in New York City, France pledged its support for its allies who were attacked and thus assisted the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). At its height, we provided NATO forces with 3,600 troops and several naval and air vehicles and operations. Our combat troops were withdrawn in November 2012, and all other military elements were withdrawn upon the disbanding of ISAF in 2014. France continues to fight terror in Iraq, the Levant, and the Sahel with active military resources. Recently, al-Qaeda and ISIL have amplified global terrorism efforts, and these effects can be felt acutely in France. From the Charlie Hebdo Shooting to the Bataclan Theater Massacre, hundreds of French people have died at the hands of terrorists.
    As the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs has stated, France is dedicated to the fight against terrorism. We condemn in the strongest terms the indiscriminate killing of civilians by Taliban and ISIL forces as well as egregious human rights violations. We have approved UNSC Resolutions 1267, establishing the al-Qaeda and Taliban Sanctions Committee, 1368, mandating the establishment of ISAF, 1401, establishing UNAMA, 1988, establishing the separate Afghanistan and Taliban Sanctions Committees, and 2189, welcoming the NATO led Resolute Support Mission all in this counter-terrorism effort. We have supported all resolutions extending the mandate of UNAMA and the sanctions regimes, additionally welcoming all decisions supporting these initiatives. We have signed a 20-year friendship and cooperation treaty that provides assistance and cooperation in all areas ranging from defense to economic development to Afghanistan. We are also a participant country of the 2006 Afghanistan Compact, detailing guidelines for economic development, aid, and governance. This compact was endorsed by UNSC Resolution 1659.
    We remain committed to the fight against terrorism and believe that a lasting solution shall be achieved via political negotiation working with regional actors in addition to assistance from the international community. Agreements and solutions will ultimately rely upon the consideration of and implementation by the Afghan authorities. We believe that for global safety, no region can be allowed to serve as a sanctuary for terrorism. We are committed to strengthening resources and aid for the stabilization of Afghanistan, however we will not favor heavy allocation of French resources due to a political shift from center right to center, withdrawal of military forces recently from the region and elsewhere, and currently allocated resources in other regions.

  • Flemiwil001
    Flemiwil001 November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee:Security Council
    Topic: Situation in the Afghanistan
    Country: Japan
    Delegate: Mr. William Fleming

    The people of Japan would like to first remind other of the resilience of the people of Afghanistan, and of how many times that they have resisted invasion from outside threats. Given this, Japan believes that the best way to help the standing government of Afghanistan is to first quickly aid in the defeat of terrorists, and then begin to provide the government with a way to restore the federal government to power, while prosecuting those who have corrupted the government. While other governments have tried to install democracies in the world, most have not stood the test of time and have collapsed. The Security Counsel’s goal should not revolve around the strength of the government, but rather the people of Afghanistan will work with experts to develop local economies and train police to act according to the standards put in place by the government.
    We must also look to combat the terrorist cells that still exist in the region if we are to fully restore the government of Afghanistan. The growing threat of terrorism in the area from groups such as ISIL and Taliban are cause for concern when discussing the rise of a restored government, and we must use precise strikes to allow the Afghani people to reclaim the land they have lost. The people of Japan would like to encourage other nations to join in aiding those who would seek to fight ISIL in the area, though we cannot commit to troops on the ground due to governmental restrictions.
    A final key point that the people of Japan would like to recognize is the displaced persons from groups like ISIL. If the Security council places restoring the government first on our priority list, then we must place aiding displaced persons second. The number of persons who are being displaced grows daily, and the Security Council must do all that is within out power to stop this.

  • Charlieuchno
    Charlieuchno November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Arab Republic of Egypt
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Afghanistan
    Delegate: Charlie Uchno, The Roeper School

    Egypt understands the recent escalation of the situation in Afghanistan and urges the global community to work with haste to resolve the conflict. However, throughout the United Nations’ interactions with Afghanistan, it is crucial to respect the autonomy and self-governance of the nation, for if the global community does not respect the Afghan government, why should the countries people respect it? Thus, Egypt urges UN forces to focus on addressing the presence of terrorism rather than attempt to reform Afghanistan’s political system.

    In this situation, the United Nations’ primary goals should be to protect the rights of the people of Afghanistan, especially those who are internally displaced, as well as to deescalate the violence caused by terrorism. Living in a war-torn country and suffering from the effects of political instability, the Afghan people need assistance. While international aid is certainly to be a part of any assistance, it is important to recall Afghanistan’s extensive history with intrusions from other nations. Past interactions with Afghanistan have been imperialistic, impulsive, and ineffective in ridding the country of its terrorist organizations, as demonstrated by recent events. Therefore, if further de-escalation is to be pursued, it is crucial that a majority the global community is on board.

    Though there is a definite focus of operations in Afghanistan in the organizations of the Taliban and ISIL, it is crucial that any and all actions taken by the United Nations are made wisely. This violence has gone on far too long, and Egypt believes that with the unity of the UNSC, such devastation may ultimately cease.

  • DelegatefromUruguay
    DelegatefromUruguay November 15, 2017 Reply

    Topic: The Situation in Afghanistan
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Country: Uruguay
    Delegate: Peyton Klochack
    School: Grand Blanc High School

    The numbers speak for itself for a country that has been in almost a constant state of unending and unrelenting war, and with a people that have children that are war weary. Almost 1 million people were displaced in 2015 according to Internal-Displacement Monitoring Centre, internally and externally, as a result of the conflict and that number is now 1.3 million as of 2016 reported by Human Rights Watch’s 2017 World Report on Afghanistan. There have been 8,397 civilian casualties as of September 30th, 2017 in the last year as recorded by the United Nations. Most of the attacks were committed by the Taliban, however at a dismal 61%. While this is important, Afghanistan’s current government is backing unofficial militias, the main cause of these attack coming from the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), as well as government forces, and have cause the other 23% of those attacks according to Human Rights Watch’s 2017 World Report on Afghanistan. On top of that airstrikes from NATO-coalition forces have killed hundreds of civilians each year that they have been involved in the conflict. While the rules of engagement have changed to decrease civilian casualties since the earlier years of air strikes, back in 2008 1 civilian died per 3 airstrikes, they are now at their highest levels since then, with the Bureau of Investigation of Journalism reporting as of 2015, airstrikes have killed 1 civilian per 11 airstrikes. This data is imperative as journalists are under threat as well. 2016 was the deadliest year for journalists in Afghanistan and the government has reinstated a program called the Media Violations Investigations Commission, which was formerly shut down as a result of pressure from media watchdog groups as being a tool of pressure and intimidation to journalists, was reinstated. These are the results of almost 20 years of war by the international community with no end in sight, a failure of the highest degree.

    The delegation of Uruguay has not been an active participant in this conflict, but shares the opinion that this war has been devastating to the people of Afghanistan, as per the reason this committee has been called forth to address it. Uruguay is in support for resolutions that include, persecution of war criminals in the current conflict on all sides, condemn the Afghan government for its support of ANSF and call for it to stop its backing or risk sanctions by the international community, Increase aid and security to refugee camps for the 1.3 million displaced people in and around Afghanistan and cooperating with the nations that harbor them, at least some attempt at drawing up a temporary cease fire by all parties, and call for new, on time, elections that all Afghan people are allowed to vote in that will be conducted by the Carter Center and monitored by UN peacekeepers throughout the nation. Other proposals that promote feasible and lasting peace throughout the nation will be supported by the delegation from Uruguay.

  • Hmsmith996
    Hmsmith996 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Russian Federation
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: Situation in Afghanistan
    Team: Royal Oak Model United Nations
    Delegate: Henry Smith

    The Russian Federation acknowledges the appalling civilian casualties in Afghanistan. Russia absolutely condemns terrorism in any form for any purpose, and Russian hearts bleed for the innumerable losses due to the present situation. However, this does not mean that all international law and all international norms go out the window. On the contrary, it is all the more reason to follow them – they were set up as the agreed upon parameters for interactions on the global stage in exactly this kind of situation. The Russian Federation is not a legalist – it does not believe in following the law for its own sake – but it does believe in following international law for the benefit of the world.

    How can we stop the bloodshed without resorting to international vigilantism? This is what the UNSC must answer. The current situation is one where a single state has invaded another state for revenge on a non-state actor. Russia does not believe in unnecessarily punishing member states or condemning states for past actions, but it cannot overlook how the American invasion is ongoing! U.S. troops have been in Afghanistan for sixteen years. Perhaps
    it is time to admit defeat and allow the problem to be solved through the proper channels.
    A solution to the Afghanistan issue starts with a frank discussion about the right way to intervene. The Russian Federation states, unequivocally, that the UN cannot allow adventurism to be global policy. The primary consideration any proposal must take into account is consensus and cooperation. The Afghan government must take part, the Security Council must take part, and yes, even the United States must have their voice heard.

    In addition, the concern of the UN here is stability. The reason the Security Council exists is to promote peace, not export an ideology. When the United Nations intervenes, it must be on the basis of ending the conflict and setting the stage for peace talks, not endorsing a narrow idea of what makes a legitimate government.

    The Russian Federation would like to re-affirm its commitment to cooperation. It hopes for the utmost expediency and effectiveness in addressing this problem, and is more than happy to work with any state or nation committed to re-building Afghanistan’s future.

  • Tejaravi
    Tejaravi November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Security Council
    The Situation in Afghanistan
    Plurinational State of Bolivia
    Teja S Ravi

    The United Nations has been posed with the issue of the situation in Afghanistan for the past couple decades. The controversy of the situation in Afghanistan is heightening even today: covering social media, new stations, and public television. Unfortunately, Afghanistan is faced with the increase in violence and armed forces while the country’s economic independence and stability decrease. The topic is a pressing issue to discuss as the “number of instances of armed conflict between government and Taliban forces increased by 22% in 2016 alone”. The issue is posing the forlorn instability of the Afghanistan people. In addition, the people of Afghanistan are threatened in their social, economic, political, and educational well-being. In order to ease the conflict–of the increase in dependence, instability of the native people, the displacement of citizens–the United Nations must take action to aid Afghanistan to promote world peace as to calm the issue before the problem becomes more rampant.

    Bolivia recognizes Afghanistan’s instability and corruption as a problem. Additionally, Bolivia has been dealing with false accusations and speculations from the United States, specifically, the Wall Street Journal editor Mary Anastasia O’Grady. Ms. O’Grady argues that our country is a new threat and the “new” Afghanistan. According to Huffington Post, Ms. Violeta Ayala–a well-respected writer in Bolivia–strongly disagrees with Ms. O’Grady’s statement: Bolivia is “a rogue state and safe haven for terrorists.” Publically being accused as a threat to the nation’s worldpeace profoundly concerns us as our reputation is being degraded due to false accusations by Ms. Mary Anastasia O’Grady. Although yes, our country does hold the coca leaf as a cash crop; it advances our economy.m. But in what manner is our country a threat to all countries globally? Other than our own nation itself maybe, who do we pose a threat to? Our country rightfully fought for the legalization of coca leaves in the borders of our own country from the 1961 convention–a framework holding the rules of the drug policy. It is extremely concerning that instead of focusing press onto the unfortunate situation in Afghanistan, Bolivia is being accused of becoming the “new” Afghanistan. Our president, Evo Morales is in fact attempting to eradicate the coca crops and cocaine-related crimes; in fact, “Bolivia’s coca-crop had gone down 19%.” The United Nations must attempt to bring world peace by focusing on the security a nation must have, instead of this press focusing on issues that are already being addressed in the boundaries of Bolivia itself.

    Bolivia encourages the United Nations to call for the international peace by supporting the fight against the corruption and violence held in Afghanistan. With this similar situation arising in Bolivia, we propose that the United Nations focus on the importance of safety by calling international refugee assistance. Bolivia also supports the need for collecting reliable data in order to monitor changes in the situation in Afghanistan itself, but also grow the communication between other countries regarding the situation in Afghanistan. We encourage the United Nations to educate the public of the Afghanistan situation, of the purpose of coca leaf, and of the other countries stance on this situation. Concluding, we hope to see a resolution containing a fight for the solidarity and unity of the countries globally as the situation in Afghanistan strikes in great importance to us. We hope to advance the nation’s world peace because we are not a threat to the world’s peace.

  • Brettmbauman
    Brettmbauman November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Security Council
    Topic: Situation in Afghanistan
    Country: Ethiopia
    Delegate: Mr. Brett Bauman
    School: Forest Hills Northern High School

    When the United States began to draw back the number of forces it had in Afghanistan, the resulting power vacuum provided the Taliban with the perfect opportunity to attempt to regain the territory they had lost after being ousted from power in 2001. When the United States left, the Afghan security forces were not prepared or adequately staffed to deal with an enemy as formidable as the Taliban. As a result, the Taliban has staged a resurgence, with a large uptick in bombings and other attacks against Afghan civilians. This violence is very concerning for the international community after having already spent billions of dollars driving out the Taliban. Additionally, the threat is not limited to Taliban violence. The IKSP, or Islamic State in Khorasan Province, has been responsible for many atrocious bombings and attacks against civilians and places of worship. A report by the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) showed that since January 1, 2016 there have been 850 civilian casualties as a result of attacks against places of worship. This number is staggering and very disturbing to Ethiopia, as this is nearly double the number of casualties from these types of attacks from the year 2009 to 2015.

    Ethiopia is very supportive of the fight against terror, especially against radical Islamic terror in Afghanistan. Ethiopia is not a member of NATO and doesn’t currently have troops serving in Afghanistan, however it supports efforts to stabilize the region and end the rampant violence that has been plaguing the area for the last few decades. The failure to form a functioning government that is established on the trust of the electorate is a major challenge facing Afghanistan. Without a government that has the confidence of the people, Afghanistan will not possess the power or authority to effectively challenge their Taliban rivals. Ethiopia sees stabilizing the humanitarian situation as a first priority, as human life should be preserved wherever the UN intervenes. Ethiopia is also alarmed by the recent report that there has been a staggering 87% increase in opium production in Afghanistan. Ethiopia sees this as another factor that results in increased destabilization of the region due to the traffic of illicit drugs. Ethiopia believes the international community must do a better job to help the Afghan government address this issue. Ethiopia is convinced that the Taliban, ISIS, and other terrorist organizations can be stopped, but only through the cooperation of the international community and by setting clear goals for the mission in Afghanistan

  • Tkrasny195
    Tkrasny195 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Topic: The Situation in Afghanistan
    Submitted to: United Nations Security Council
    Country: China
    Delegate: Tyler Krasny

    Since the origins of the Taliban, Afghanistan has seen a marked lack of stability, creating a situation in which both terrorists and chaos thrive. To date, over 31,000 civilian deaths have occurred in Afghanistan, and that’s not even considering any military-related deaths in the country. With IEDs causing uncertainty at every turn, and refugees looking for a safe haven to rely on, the situation in Afghanistan is dire to say the least.

    As a neighboring country to Afghanistan, China has felt the affects of the nation’s turmoil all too well. In China’s Xinjiang province, Uighur militants have begun to use the Taliban and terrorist fighters in Afghanistan as a source of inspiration, and pose a serious threat to the stability of western China. To ensure the Uighur rebels do not gain any more of a foothold, the Security Council must ensure that Afghanistan and Pakistan cannot serve as a sanctuary for terror. Further, as China hopes to continue to expand its economic prowess, Afghanistan and Pakistan could be greatly benefited by mutual trade deals with China—deals that cannot properly function through the instability.

    To resolve this conflict, a couple key principles must first be established. On all accounts, the United States’ 16 year war in Afghanistan has failed, miserably. Through attempting to push politics aside in favor of military might, the United States and its allies have undoubtedly contributed to the lack of stability in the region. The situation in Afghanistan stems, and has always stemmed, from politics. China firmly believes that no solution to the unrest in Afghanistan will come from solely military action; rather, political action must be taken, without a Western agenda. For example, the government of Pakistan has relentlessly fought the evil of terrorism in Afghanistan, yet is completely overlooked by much of the international community as a key player in the fight against terror.

    Moreover, assuming a political approach to solving Afghanistan’s turmoil will be taken to some extent, negotiations with the Taliban must be taken carefully. In any context, the Taliban must not be dealt with unless negotiations are done under predetermined conditions that include severing any potential ties to terrorism. Otherwise, the Taliban will undoubtedly take advantage of the situation and leverage all possible angles.

    Clearly, the situation in Afghanistan is a complex one, and cannot be solved through brute force. However, China is confident that through careful political maneuvering, the Security Council can create stability for the region.

  • Schmlea
    Schmlea November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Italy
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in the Afghanistan
    Delegate: Léa Schmitt, East Grand Rapids High School

    Afghanistan’s war is fueled by support from within Pakistan for Taliban insurgents, and by poor governance within Afghanistan, including entrenched patronage systems and corruption, and a weak rule of law. The withdrawal of international combat troops between 2011 and 2014 left a fragile security environment and a struggling national economy. Since the disputed 2014 presidential election, friction between the two halves of the “National Unity Government” has prevented the government from implementing widely supported reforms, notably against corruption. This has deepened public discontent and questions over the government’s legitimacy.
    Over 100,000 unaccompanied Afghan minors, almost all of them male and generally between 14 and 17 years of age, applied for asylum in Europe between 2008 and 2016, making Afghanistan the single largest country of origin for this group of refugees. While Germany and Sweden received by far the highest number of applications, Italy became an important staging post in the long journey to other European destinations. Therefore this issue has strongly affected Italy.
    Italy will send more troops to Afghanistan, becoming the first Nato member in Europe to answer Barack Obama’s call for reinforcements to fight the Taliban. The Italian government may also drop restrictions on the deployment of its soldiers, the Guardian has learned. There are 2,000 Italian troops in Afghanistan, mostly in the western province of Herat. That will be increased to 2,800 this year, according to European diplomats. An announcement is expected soon.

  • TlatoaniReal
    TlatoaniReal November 15, 2017 Reply

    Security Council
    The Situation in Afghanistan
    Ukraine
    Delegate: Tlatoani Real Rojas
    The situation in Afghanistan is one of the most important issues of the past 20 years. This particular country has been host of several terrible belic conflicts which have left it on a vulnerable position. In addition Afghanistan has received countless military help from several countries. An increase of Taliban activity has been registered in the country, were armed forces of both the government and the Taliban have incremented in the late 2016. Throughout 2017, explosive devices have become a major part of the conflict since the incrimination of these within the affected area, not only targeting military assets but civilians as well.
    There is no doubt that violence in Afghanistan has increased on the past decade. It is the UNSC main objective to rectify this problem and give an ultimatum to the terrorist groups since the utmost affected party are the civilians. Ukraine would like to stress the fact that it is paramount to search for a political solution, since there is nothing as degrading to a society as a war.
    The delegation of Ukraine is more than willing to help the delegation of Afghanistan due to the past that both delegations share, as well as the support that exist between our nations. Ukraine has helped in Afghanistan primarily by conducting exploration of routes, objects and local ground; as well as with the implementation of measurements to deal with improvised explosive devices and neutralization of explosive objects.

  • Katiesundeen
    Katiesundeen November 15, 2017 Reply

    Senegal
    United Nations Security Council
    The Situation in Afghanistan
    Katherine Sundeen
    Williamston High School

    Afghanistan, having always been invaded by other countries such as the Soviet Union and Great Britain, has never known peace. The most recent large-scale invasion by the Taliban (prompting NATO invasion) has caused the Afghan government to have almost no control on their country’s security. Though the troops from the United States and NATO countries like Germany and the UK have ended, there are still around 13,000 troops in the area, and the country’s security has never been worse. The conflict has also become much larger, leading to the recent bombings in the area. The Taliban has increased their activity in the area, and many Afghans can only see the situation getting worse. The amount of civilian casualties has risen, as well as the amount of suicide bombings throughout central cities. Citizens have been fleeing, which affects the surrounding countries; Pakistan, especially. Economically, the country has been failing for decades, and is very unstable.
    Because Senegal is a predominantly Muslim country, we are very sympathetic with those suffering in Afghanistan. Our primary concern is their well-being, because they have experienced nothing but instability for decades. In the past, Senegal has also had terrorist-type threats target members of our nation, and in return, there was a decrease in education, similar to what’s happening in Afghanistan. We are concerned and alarmed at the threats that these Afghans are facing, and we want to offer and arm of support to them.
    Senegal, being in closer proximity to Afghanistan than some Western countries (such as the United States), as well as being a former colony, understands that what Afghanistan needs is not long-term military settlement in the area, but rather a communication with outside countries. The United States has avoided contact with the Taliban for years, but Senegal would like to urge them to communicate. Since Senegal has signed the Defense Cooperation with the United States, we believe that the US should have more direct involvement. Though Senegal urges military involvement in other areas, we believe that Afghanistan has experienced too much military intervention, and this would further hurt the government, which already has no control. Senegal would like to offer financial aid to Afghanistan, especially after there is more peace in the area, and restoration becomes a priority.

  • SafiSyed347
    SafiSyed347 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: The Republic of Kazakhstan
    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Afghanistan
    Delegate: Safi-ur-Rahman Syed
    School: Saginaw Arts & Sciences Academy

    Kazakhstan is a Central Asian nation which has a direct relationship with the situation in Afghanistan, due to its close proximity. Additionally, in correlation with the threatening circumstance posed by the situation in Afghanistan, Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations Security Council on this issue.

    Afghanistan has been the center of conflict for almost one and a half decades now, due to powerful militant groups, and the instability of the government. The various militant groups that have emerged, such as Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and ISIS, have overrun the area and imposed their own violent regime, affecting not only the people of Afghanistan, but also the surrounding countries.

    Currently, there are greater than 13,000 foreign troops stationed in Afghanistan with the task of training Afghan military and police forces. In 2016, the number of armed conflicts between the Taliban and the government increased by 22%. An estimated 940 civilian deaths have been a result of suicide bombings by the Taliban and ISIS; the largest attack happened on May 31 when an improvised truck bomb exploded, killing at least 150 people. The conflict has also ruined the economic state of the country. Due to the difficult conditions in Afghanistan, many civilians have been leaving the country; more than 650,000 Afghans have been displaced in 2016 alone. Schools have also been targeted, resulting in an increase of child casualties and a decline in education accessibility. The instability of the government has caused distrust among the people, setting off protests. As a response, the government has enacted security measures such as additional checkpoints and cameras in Kabul, but attacks have not ceased.

    The president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has said:“I think that all OSCE [Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe] States are concerned that after eight years of actions we are unable to achieve a calm and peaceful life for the Afghan people. It will be a major concern for the OSCE. Kazakhstan is involved as a partner in this process and as the OSCE chairman.” From this, it can be seen that Nazarbayev supports programs to provide peace in Afghanistan.

    In order to remedy the problems being caused by such groups, Kazakhstan is working with the United States of America to provide aid to the Afghan government. The aid is in the form of financial contributions, supporting the Afghan National Security Forces, and also in building infrastructure, providing education and healthcare in Afghanistan, and in providing basic necessities such as food. In fact, Kazakhstan has sent $20 million worth of food to Afghanistan. To help with education accessibility, Kazakhstan in awarding a $50 million scholarship to a certain number of Afghan students to study various topics at Kazakh universities, in addition to the education being provided within Afghanistan. In the future, Kazakhstan plans to continue providing aid to Afghan civilians and supporting the Afghan government until the conflict dies down and the government is able to take control of the situation.

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