The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

An Improvised Explosive Device, or IED, is commonly defined as a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. Although IEDs have historically been used as far back as the First World War, they became truly widespread in the hands of various non-state terrorist groups like the Taliban and Al-Qaeda at the turn of the century. Between 2011 and 2013, during the height of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, more than 53,000 civilians were killed or injured by IEDs. IEDs can be built using common materials, but most effective devices are sourced from conventional munitions which are plentiful in active or recently active military hot spots. Commercial materials such as fertilizer, bleach, brake fluid, or cleaning solvents can also be used as catalysts for explosions in IEDs. Their flexible design and ease of creation provide tactical advantages for their users and tactical nightmares for the international community.

 

As the use of IEDs by non-state actors and terror groups grows, the threat they pose on victims and nations looms over policy makers and civilians alike. While the risk of IED detonation in active conflict zones is obvious, it must also be noted that the end of conflict does not bring the end of this risk. Like landmines, undetonated IEDs can remain scattered in unexpected places, difficult to see and putting innocent lives at risk. Because of the simplicity of manufacture and ability to create a functioning device out of common goods, it becomes difficult to eradicate IEDs without creating unnecessary limitations on civilians. Nevertheless, it is possible to regulate the distribution and sale of source materials for these devices, such as fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate or urea nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, or ethylene glycol dinitrate. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons also amended its second Protocol in 1996 to categorize IEDs under the purview of “Other devices,” thus banning their use by the 115 nations who ratified the CCW.

 

This committee should discuss the ability of the United Nations to combat the proliferation of improvised explosive devices, especially as it pertains to nations’ responses to asymmetric conflicts. Most use cases occur at the hands of non-state actors, and tactical responses do not seem to have an effect on these groups. Potential solutions could include funding development of counter-IED (C-IED) efforts, which strengthen military vehicles and facilities to be resistant against attacks using these devices. Another solution could be increasing efforts to limit movement of materials commonly used in the creation of IEDs, including both chemical agents and military scrap materials left over from previous wars/conflicts. Post-conflict cleanup of IEDs should also be on the agenda. Finally, addressing the international flow of capital and trade from states to non-state actors could limit their capacity to produce these indiscriminate devices. All options are available, and it is up to this committee to decide the best course of action and combination of strategies, to prevent their continued use through diplomatic and political discourse.

  • Calveneauz
    Calveneauz November 10, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the threat posed by IEDS
    Cŏte d’ivoire
    Mr. Zachary Kenneth Calveneau

    The disposal of IEDs or Improvised Explosive Devices remains a vital topic in the global world. They present a threat to citizens all across the world and must be addressed in this committee immediately. During the height of the conflicts in The 2nd Ivorian Civil War (2010-2011) thousands of landmines and other explosives were deployed. Post war, many of these explosives still remained a threat to the people. Although 115 nations signed the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, IEDs are still a problem in today’s society.

    In October of 1997, the UN created UNMAS or the United Mine Action Service. This allowed for funding and support to be sent to countries who may need it for cleaning up explosive remnants. With the help of UNMAS, Cŏte d’Ivoire has done many things to help with countering IEDs post-war. We have constructed 248 armories and ammunition storage facilities. We have over 400 soldiers trained in EOD or explosive ordinance disposal, and all known stockpiles of munitions left over from a recent civil war have been removed, allowing Côte d’Ivoire become signatory to and compliant with the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM). We are an example of a successful cleanup, and we believe it is necessary to ask for support to help other countries with this pressing issue.

    As a member of UNODA, or the UN Disarmament Commission, we strongly urge that countries increased increase communication between nations to help spread the use of new C-IED tech. Also, we request the deployment of more bomb disposal units throughout affected areas to help alleviate the pain of IED cleanup on developing and warring countries. Cŏte d’Ivoire proposes that the United Nations provide necessary funding and support for countries who may need it for cleanup efforts post combat.With over 53,000 civilians killed by IEDs during the conflict in Afghanistan (2011-2013) IEDs are still a large threat in today’s world. The fear of IEDs can be detrimental to a population’s morale, and the quicker these IEDs are disposed of, the quicker these countries can recover from whatever may have happened to them.

    • Hcdonovan51502
      Hcdonovan51502 November 16, 2017 Reply

      Finland
      Hope Donovan
      I represent Finland for the DiSec view. Although the issue pertaining to improvised explosive devices is not an epidemic in Finland, It is growing to affect many parts of the world. Some countries hurting the most include Iraq and Afghanistan. While Finland is not allied with either country, we wish to keep this violent problem from gaining popularity and directly affecting other countries around the globe.
      Improvised Explosive Devices are simple weapons that anyone can easily build, as most of the materials can be regularly sold to consumers. They are small and powerful, having the ability to injure or even kill many people at once. A common ingredient in one of these Improvised Explosive Devices, or IEDs is a fertilizer containing Ammonium nitrate or Urea Nitrate. Finland proposes limiting the production of this chemical for a start. By slowly removing one of the ingredients, we may slow the problem as best as we can.
      Finland proposes that over the course of the next few years, we may limit the production of certain chemicals to protect our country and others. Over time we hope to see this dangerous trend cease. In conclusion, Limiting manufacturing of chemicals may help to slow this epidemic.

  • Srees1
    Srees1 November 10, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Iceland
    Sreevas Ramakrishnan

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have posed a threat to the civilians, military, and the global world as a whole. While the IED is sometimes described as a new technology, it actually has a lengthy history dating back to the 1500s. The “new” version of IEDs, whose explosively formed penetrators can pierce the armor plating of the U.S. military vehicles, dates back to World War II. IEDs can be created with various kinds of objects including artillery, aerial bombs, fertilizers, TNT, and other explosives. They also contain radiological, chemical, and biological components that cause harm. The IED has proved to be a cheap, simple, and fatal weapon used against both civilians and advanced militaries. The IED is not disappearing; rather, its presence is increasing. The General Assembly Resolution titled, Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices, has established tighter restrictions on the components used for making IEDs. Furthermore, the United Nations has to take immediate action to stop the threat posed by IEDs because it is an enduring threat that requires an enduring capability to stop it.

    As the use of IEDs grow, the threat they pose on victims and nations revolve around policy makers and civilians. According to Magnús Sveinn Helgason, on June 29, 2017, Police Special Forces discovered a homemade pipe-bomb at a bus stop in a Reykajavík suburb. The bomb was lying on a bus stop bench and was luckily diffused before any damage was done. In order to prepare for IED explosions, Iceland has taken the initiative to train troops in high-threat IED environments. One exercise, the Northern Challenge, led by the Icelandic Coast Guard was executed to provide a unique training opportunity for IED teams serving in or being deployed to international missions. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) also amended its second Protocol in 1996 to make IEDs under the branch of “Other Devices,” which banned their use by Iceland and the other nations who ratified this.

    Iceland proposes that the United Nations should combat the prolific number of improvised explosive devices because it will affect nations’ responses to asymmetric warfare and conflicts. In a country who has taken the initiative to train troops in IED environments, Iceland knows the effects of having IEDs in any country. In order to prevent the use of these hazardous weapons, the UN could fund the growth of counter-IEDs (C-IEDs); this would strengthen military vehicles to be resistant against IED attacks (Improvised Explosive Devices). Another solution could be to increase the restrictions on the movement of chemicals commonly used to create IEDs such as ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. The United Nations should also plan for post-war cleanups of IEDs, so these scraps will not be available to IED designers. A resolution that advocates for a combination of strategies to prevent the development of IEDs will protect civilians and the armed forces making the world a safer place.

  • Anishpremkumar
    Anishpremkumar November 11, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Australia
    Anish Premkumar

    The use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), must be controlled as soon as possible in order to preserve the lives of innocent people accross the world. In 1996, the Convention on the Certain Conventional Weapons banned the use of IEDs. However, in 2007 IEDs were used against United States invasion forces in Afghanistan. By the end of the year they had become responsible for approximately 63% of deaths in Iraq. According to the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA), the use of IEDs did not begin with the Iraq War. They have been used in warfare since the invention of explosives. Terrorism campaigns throughout history have relied on IEDs, and the Global War on Terrorism began with two IEDs flown into the World Trade Center, which was the second attempt to bring down those buildings with IEDs. Also, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has recenty developed new forms of IEDs that can be launched from rifles or dropped from an aerial drone. This growing problem can kill hundreds of thousands of innocent, civilan lives. Due to this, Australia has a strong opinion against the use of illegal IEDs and is attempting to help the situation in the Middle East and Asia today.

    Though Australia signed the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) on April 8, 1982; Australia had countless attacks involving the use of illegal IEDs. In December 2016, a Melbourne teenager was sentenced for his role in a disrupted May 2015 plot. According to the National Security of Australia, during the time of his arrest he possessed IED instructions for homemade explosives. Although the IED threat is nationan-wide, it is seen globally as well. Alongside casualties from other nations, 88 Australians were killed, with many more injured, by IED attacks in Bali, Indonesia in October 2002. In addition, since 2001, 14 Australian Defence Force personnel have lost their lives from injuries sustained by IEDs in Afghanistan. Further terrorist plots involving explosives could occur in the future, and there may not be any warning before an attack.

    Australia supports strong measures to reduce the availability and use of IEDs, including efforts to restrict the international smuggling and supply of IED components. National Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) frameworks are effective and should be in use in all countries which have been put into place in Australia since September 2015. According to the National Security of Australia, countries should innovate and invest in technical solutions that neutralise imminent threats or reduce the severity of incidents, for example, through counter-measure systems, and institutionalising C-IED training and awareness across all levels of relevant government agencies. Australia has continued to raise awareness on this important problem by publishing new national IED guidelines for places of mass gatherings. Australia is willing to share these guidelines with other interested countries.

  • E.l.i.z._44
    E.l.i.z._44 November 12, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Ethiopia
    Delegate: Elizabeth Vredevelt

    Improvised Explosive Devices, or IEDs might not be new to society, but never have they been more dangerous. As rebels find new platforms such as social media and the internet to proliferate with propaganda, the chances of domestic and foreign terrorists acting on such calls to violence has spiked. While Ethiopia has had just one IED attack in the past 5 years, there is an ever-present peril of another attack due to neighboring countries Kenya and Somalia. Ethiopia recognizes the potential power communities and citizens have if they unite against terrorism as one force.

    Ethiopia’s success in preventing IED attacks stems from empowering villages and working with neighbor nations. Ethiopia is involved with and consults local communities, and provides weapons and arms for them, recognizing their potential in helping fight terrorist threats, including but not limited to IEDs.

    Other programs such as the Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTPII), seek to counter radical extremism. Organizations like these are aware of socio-economic aspects that lead to young people to look for outlets such as terrorist recruitment, and radicalization. Classes focus on things such as health, education, employment and sustainability.

    One major Ethiopian initiative is that of the International Peacekeeping Training Centre, in our capital Addis Ababa, which was founded to stabilize and ensure regional security. Training courses designed with potential UN Peacekeeping Operations in mind, increase practical skills of conflict prevention, management and post-conflict recovery. Participants learn how to respond under threats from IEDs and explosives, and are taught by experts – even IED specialists.

    Ethiopian collaborations include the UN’s AMISOM, or African Union Mission in Somalia, and Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism, (PREACT). Working with Kenyan forces in AMISOM has forced al-Shabaab from some predominant strongholds in Somalia, and funding from PREACT ($19.8 million) has provided new communications equipment for the Ethiopian military. Ethiopia participates in the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF), and hosted the meeting in 2013. Joining the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group, was another step towards monitoring terrorism.

    Despite strong partnerships between the police, intelligence services and defence forces in the Ethiopian Task Force for Counterterrorism, Ethiopian Defence forces are in need of funding and search equipment. While the Ethiopian Mine Action Office is taking steps to locate and destroy land mines, there are about 300 possible active sites. Ethiopia looks forward to working with its allies and defense partners to ensure the safety of its citizens through the empowerment of villages, proactive prevention from radicalization, and collaboration.

  • Taegan_Long
    Taegan_Long November 12, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Uganda
    Taegan Long

    The development and usage of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) continue to increase. In recent years, IED attacks have lead to more death and injuries than any other weapons besides firearms. The rise of IEDs are due in part to the simple design and easy accessibility through criminal networks and borders. Several terrorist groups have adopted the manufacturing and use of IEDs as a way to wreak havoc on the masses and gain territory. While IEDs are regulated by international law, it is the deliberate violation of these laws by armed forces and terrorist groups, such as Boko Haram and Al-Shabaab, that have given a new rise of the threat of IEDs.

    Caught in an ongoing conflict against Al-Shabaab, Uganda remains vulnerable to the effects of IEDs. In order to lessen the effects of IEDs, it is necessary to educate the military in counter-IED training -locating and clearing- in order to remove the threat they impose on civilians and noncombatants. Under the Operation Training Detachment (OAT), 22 servicemen were in charge of training Uganda Battle Group UGABAG in basic know-how of IEDs before they were deployed to Somalia to help with the country’s ongoing terrorist crisis. In efforts to draw attention to the issue on a larger scale, Uganda works under United States African Command (AFRICOM) to aid partner nations in combating IEDs through training programs. Since IEDs may still be employed by warring parties if they adhere to humanitarian laws, unlawful use of these devices by non-state groups have spread quickly. As of the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty, the use of anti-personnel landmines -landmines designed to be used against humans- have been banned, and the use of IEDs has also been outlawed. In 2016, the General Assembly also adopted a resolution that encouraged states to develop their own national policies to combat IEDs. These treaties have brought unsatisfactory results to the issue of IEDs and does not help the problem at hand.

    Uganda encourages neighboring countries to unite against the use of IEDs and continue efforts to train militants in the process of locating and clearing these indiscriminate weapons. Uganda proposed that there be laws that fully ban the use of IEDs and outline situations where they cannot be used, since there is currently nothing that completely bans the use of IEDs so long as they adhere to humanitarian law. In regions where there are strict weapon regulations, the use of IEDs have become popular alternatives, taking place of small firearms. Because of their new found popularity, IEDs require more attention on an international scale.

  • Tvwestrick
    Tvwestrick November 13, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and National Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
    Mr. Thomas Westrick

    Improvised explosive devices are deadly weapons created from common materials. These types of weapons are usually created during asymmetric war and were used in Afghan and Iraqi conflicts. This weapon is common choice for terrorist groups who want to cheaply kill soldiers in a standing army. Insurgencies chose this weapon if they are willing to kill innocents as well as belligerents. The number of civilians killed by IEDs has increased by 70% over the last three years, and from 2011 to 2013, 53,000 civilians around the world were killed by IEDs according to Action on Armed Violence (AOAV). Innocents are further hurt by functioning IEDs that are left over after conflicts. Afghanistan is constantly plagued by this problem and has one of the worst IED problems in the world. Afghanistan is currently fighting an ongoing war against the Taliban who employs these atrocious weapons.

    Improvised explosive devices are an insidious problem in Afghanistan. The Taliban has used IEDs indiscriminately against citizens and combatants alike. According to the United States Department of Defense, between the beginning of April and the end of June of this year, at least 3,043 people were murdered by terrorist IEDs. Suicide bombings orchestrated by the Taliban occur often in our busy cities and streets. Over half of all civilian deaths and injuries from explosive violence targeted our capital, Kabul. Afghanistan has fought fervently against the use of these devices and has decreed a ban on the the import, use, storage and trade of ammonium nitrate fertiliser, one of the chemical sources of our problems. Afghan Security Institutions’ C-IED officers and the Ministry of Education has spread awareness of IEDs to our young children while hand-outs, radio and television PSAs, and billboards communicate to our population the dangers of IEDs. Additionally, we have deployed explosive hazard reduction teams to protect our citizens from these immoral weapons. Leading the international fight against these weapons, we submitted the resolution “Countering the threat posed by improvised explosive devices” to the General Assembly. We have also accepted help from the United Nations and are assisted by the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA). UNAMA has been helpful in our fight against IEDs and has given us full support in the regulation of ammonium nitrate.

    In response to this issue, we urge other nations to impose stricter regulations on potential explosives. We believe that 80% of IEDs have their explosive fertilizer produced in Pakistan, so we hope that international agreement can heavily regulate these dangers. We wish to promote the use of alternative fertilizers that do not have potential in asymmetric warfare. We also want to limit the transport of these deadly materials and increase funding for post-conflict cleanup to prevent militants from capitalizing on war leftovers. To do this, we wish to condemn the manufacturing of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and request funding for IED cleanup in a resolution. Only by strict regulation of potential explosives can terrorist groups like the Taliban and their IEDs be exterminated and eradicated.

  • Michaelvickrum
    Michaelvickrum November 13, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Burundi
    Karthik Vuyyuru

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have cost 53,000 civilian lives throughout just the last three years. IEDs have to be eliminated to at least a certain extent before they start to come on the rise again and hurt many more people especially due to the many conflicts occurring around the world. Thus, the elimination of IEDs is a highly important topic to discuss for the Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC). Burundi cares about IEDs because of the lethal damage and turmoil that they have caused in the past. Burundi’s government has been fighting the Al-Shabab back in 2012, that is terrorist group whose arsenal included these deadly IEDs. From the Al-Shabab, many civilians of Burundi have died because of these weapons, and also because there were fragments of these weapons that were not used and exploded randomly later. Burundi has already received help from the United States in 2014 when the US forces helped Burundi’s forces learn about IEDs, their effects, and how to combat and disarm them. Even with this, Burundi would like further assistance and would like to see other countries also learn about the disarmament of IEDs.

    IEDs were and still are a problem in Burundi. Burundi advocates for the worldwide education and disarmament of IEDs. We also would advocate to completely eliminate IEDs from military arsenals altogether. The government has already paired up with more developed countries to teach the military about IEDs and how to disarm them as stated in the previous paragraph. Burundi realizes how much negative impact IEDs contain and has decided to try to completely rid the country of past, present, and any future attempts of planting IEDs. Burundi believes that it is taking the right steps to eliminate this problem and would like help from the United Nations and other developed countries to take charge in this initiative. Burundi supports any policy that will effectively terminate the usage of IEDs or that can assist developing countries get rid of IEDs.

    One recommendation that Burundi would like to push is that IEDs are prevalent everywhere, not only in small developing countries. Many acts of terrorism are done through IEDs because they are relatively easy to make and can cause substantial damage. Through this, Burundi would like it to be known that IEDs are an annoyance that have caused tragic losses of life and they should be eliminated. Overall, Burundi would like immediate action to eliminate the use of IEDs across the world and in Burundi to make sure no more innocent people and Burundi citizens die from these catastrophic devices.

  • Agoldenberg276
    Agoldenberg276 November 13, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    The Republic of Serbia
    Delegate: Alex Goldenberg
    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have become a popular weapon for sending a message of power by terrorist groups and other non government groups. The use of IEDs results in casualties. In 2011 and 2013 IEDs either injured or killed 53,000 civilians in Iraq and Afghanistan. IEDs are made with materials civilians can come by easily.Therefore, taking away all the materials to build IEDs will result in putting limitations on civilians lives. There have been however, are programs such as the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons that ban the use of IEDs in certain countries.
    Serbia is familiar with the use and effects of IEDs. In the 1990s during the Kosovo war, when Kosovo wanted independence from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kosovo Liberation Army attacked the Republic of Serbia using IEDs. Later in the war NATO got involved and were sending bombings of Yugoslavia. The bombings led to 13,517 civilians dying, and most of them innocent civilians living in Serbia. Serbia is familiar with the destruction of IEDs when used.
    Because Serbia has already had IEDs explode in it’s country, Serbia has experience in post-conflict cleanups of IED, and Serbia can lead other countries in how to properly clean up after IEDs. Another solution Serbia suggest is other countries and itself to monitor what materials are being imported and transported. IEDs can be made from common materials, however, it takes excessive amounts of the materials to make IEDs. Therefore, it is important for the countries to notice large amounts of materials, being transferred so they can stop the IEDs from being made. Also Serbia suggests itself and other countries to restrict the transportation of chemicals that aren’t commonly used materials, such as fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate, or urea nitrate, hydrogen peroxide or ethylene glycol dinitrate. This way, those creating IEDs won’t have the materials to make them. Serbia is hoping to solving this problem with China, the United States, and Russia.

  • Shirahaus
    Shirahaus November 13, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    United Arab Emirates
    Shira Haus

    The rising popularity of Improvised Explosive Devices has become a pressing issue in today’s world. Materials to make these weapons, such as certain fertilizers, are relatively easy to obtain, often with few regulations to restrict potential use. Terrorists and militants, including groups such as ISIS, continue to improve and strengthen these devices, causing even more deaths and destruction across the Middle East. Over the past three years, civilian deaths caused by IEDS has risen about 70%. Liberating ISIS-controlled areas is almost impossible to accomplish safely, as sites are littered with inconspicuous explosives that can be detonated easily, along with fragments from previous explosions. The United Arab Emirates is highly concerned about the recent rise in IED use, and strives to find a solution that will benefit all nations suffering from this deadly problem.

    Although no policy or action can completely halt the production of IEDS, each nation involved must at least attempt to control the amount of people harmed. The United Arab Emirates believes that the best potential solution to this situation would be to train troops in the safe and proper disassembly of IEDS, and to impose higher regulations on the materials needed to create them. As part of the Convention on Conventional Weapons, we have long opposed the use of IEDS. However, even with the ban, making these weapons is still easier than it should be. Further steps must be taken to limit the construction of IEDS to prevent greater loss of life and property. Opposition to terrorism remains an important factor in this debate as well, since many terrorist groups use IEDS as a form of guerilla warfare. The United Arab Emirates has fought terrorism as it spreads across the Middle East. We have been attempting to prevent radicalization and hate through the internet, freezing terrorist assets, and strengthening regulations, as well as spreading constant awareness about money laundering by terrorist groups. We have even cut ties with Qatar due to their continued collaboration with the Taliban and other terrorist organizations. Fully eliminating IEDS should be each country’s goal, so that every nation can move forward to create a safer, more progressive world.
    As a nation dedicated to peace and advancement, the United Arab Emirates will continue to combat the use of dangerous IEDS used by terrorist and militant forces until the threat is eliminated, or at the very least, diminished. Limiting the sale and transport of some of the materials necessary to make IEDS would prove an effective tactic, as well as to criminalize the posting of recipes online for IED construction. Another important start would be to educate civilians about the dangers of potential contact with these devices, and to urge them to report any suspicious activity. The United Arab Emirates calls upon other nations committed to preventing the spread of IEDS to work with us in order to find a possible solution.

  • Torpedosix
    Torpedosix November 13, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Republic of the Philippines
    Abby Vander Vliet

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) pose an imminent threat to our world. In 2013 alone 26,887 people were injured by IEDs, 85% were civilians. While IEDs have been used since the first world war, they are becoming widely used by non-state terrorists groups. Remaining in locations after war is over, IEDs put innocent lives at risk. In 1996, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned IEDs by categorizing them as “other devices” for the 115 nations that ratified the CWC. It is impossible to fully quantify the harm caused by IEDs because there is not reliable, comprehensive data, but the damage that has been done is already too much.

    Targeting regional governments in the Philippines, Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), a Southeast Asian militant extremist Islamist terrorist group with links to al-Qaida and the Abu Sayyaf Group, aims to establish an Islamic state (Daulah Islamiyah Nusantara) in Southeast Asia. JI are using IEDs in Marawi, on the island of Mindanao, and have caused the displaced 400,000 people. During the attack on July 22, 2017, one of the IEDs was wrapped in a towel and it is believed that it could be remotely detonated. IEDs were set to target military troops, however, civilians were injured and/or killed. The four stages that the Philippine government has been taking to counter this threat are: clearing the area of presence of terrorists, IEDs, dead bodies, and disease-causing viruses. More non-state terrorist groups are being trained on how to use IEDs by expert bomb maker Zulkifli Abdhir, more popularly known as “Marwan.” Abdhir is now dead but he spawned hundreds of bomb makers when he was still alive. Over the past two years, Marwan was able to train around 300 bomb makers in Central Mindanao. The Philippines have already allotted around $55,900 US dollars for 45 explosive detection dogs to be used by Philippine National Police’s (PNP) Aviation Security Group. Furthermore, we have enhanced intelligence and information-sharing with other agencies and foreign counterparts on terrorists and their activities in the region. We have increased Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and PNP training on explosive incident countermeasures, post-blast investigation, advanced computer forensics, and cell phone forensics support from US (JSOTF-P). We have established the Anti-Terrorism Council, Philippine Bomb Data Center, Rewards System, Coast Watch South, and the Inter-Agency Protocol for Explosives-Related Incidents Investigation. The Philippines would like to strongly reduce the use and accessibility of IEDs, along with increasing education for civilians.

    To increase public awareness and education efforts, the Philippines proposes adding public education on recognition of IEDs to avoid civilian deaths. The Philippines would like to see an increased control of the sale of commercially available IED materials and components to reduce non-state terrorists gaining access to IED elements. Another change we propose is increasing equipment and manpower resources to perform bomb detection. Furthermore, we urge the UN to increase bomb investigation techniques and forensic capacity We would like to enhance port security, border management and patrol to protect state borders from non-state terrorists entering the nation. The Philippines have signed and ratified the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty along with the Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), we urge nations who have not yet signed to do so. Finally, we urge nations to join the Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (CARHRIHL), Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and other related humanitarian disarmament advocacies.

  • Vonkm
    Vonkm November 13, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Azerbaijan
    Madeline Vonk

    Improvised Explosive Devices, also known as IEDs, have been used as a source of destruction in warfare for centuries. Before the second world war, IEDs were primarily used in ocean warfare against enemy ships. Today, IEDs can break through the “impregnable” fortress of US mine-resistant vehicles. They have been used in Iraq and in Afghanistan against US-backed forces. They are growing more ubiquitous as time progresses. In 2011, there were 608 attacks in 99 countries according to the United States Defense Department. Because they can be “improvised,” they are often used in street warfare and by terrorist organizations. These weapons are constantly evolving making them a difficult issue to control.

    The glorious country of Azerbaijan believes that the prevalence of IEDs is a threat to the international community. IEDs are often left over from previous wars and can also be simply constructed by terrorist groups. In the past 20 years, Azerbaijan has worked to counter the formation of terrorist groups in the country. It is a part of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (since it is a predominantly Muslim country). It has also advocated with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on counterterrorism initiatives. In addition to eliminating terrorism, the reason most IEDs are used in the first place, Azerbaijan developed the Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA). This agency works to eliminate IEDs left over from previous wars to prevent them from being used for further destruction.

    Azerbaijan would like to see the committee work to eliminate pre-existing IEDs and to prevent them from proliferating further. We do not see why other nations would be against eliminating IEDs. They are a threat to the international community and must be contained.

  • Khervey
    Khervey November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Syria
    Kennedy Hervey
    Syria presents a very different C-IED approach as the country is almost wholly divided by civil war. However, IEDs have brought even more suffering to an already devastated population. Between 2011 and 2015, Syria saw 8,659 deaths and injuries from 307 IED incidents. Of these casualties, 81% (7,027) were civilians. However, after the colossal increase from 2011 to 2012, following the escalation in fighting, the amount of IED incidents since 2012 has decreased, as have the casualties. However, the lethality per IED attack has increased. Explosive violence in Syria in 2016 took the lives of and injured 15,640 people 85% (13,313) were civilians. Of civilian deaths and injuries, 48% were caused by air-launched weapons. 90% of the civilians killed and injured in airstrikes were in populated areas. 50% of civilian deaths and injuries occurred in just one city – Aleppo. Compared to 2015, AOAV has recorded an increase in civilian deaths and injuries from explosive violence in Syria of 52%. In Aleppo, the numbers of civilians killed or injured by explosive violence increased by over three times that of the year before (262%) civilian deaths and injuries from air-launched explosive violence in Syria rose by 45%. Due to the escalation in fighting and the accompanying IED attacks, it has been difficult for many national entities to engage in C-IED activities. The government is focused on their own agendas and with a nation so divided, a C-IED strategy would be difficult to develop. C-IED efforts have hence mostly taken the form of airstrikes on terrorist groups, targeting IED factories and perpetrators, and as part of larger counter-terrorism initiatives. It is also important to highlight that Syria has for a long time been considered a state sponsor of terrorism. This has allowed groups such as IS and al-Qaeda to flourish and carry out attacks both internally and externally.
    The Republic of Syria calls on the UN to create a coalition efforts that see the destruction of terrorist group members and their facilities prevent many IEDs from being made and deployed. Further more implores individual countries if able and willing to utilize military operations to help Syria, such as those of Operation Inherent Resolve, that have seen even greater success. Seeing as only recently control of Manbij was retaken with OIR assistance. Syrian Democratic Forces are in the process of clearing the city to make it safe for civilians to return. Syria is a member of MENAFATF.

  • Zachste16
    Zachste16 November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices Country: France
    Delegate: Zachary R. Stevenson
    Improvised Explosive Devices are bombs constructed and used outside of Military action. These dangerous devices are usually employed by terrorist organizations. France has been involved in the regulation of these bombs since 2015. That year France worked together with UNIDIR to create a side event titled “ Improvised explosive device : options for strengthening the international response”. Following this event the resolution 70/46 on countering the threat posed by improvised explosive devices was adopted. In 2017 France worked with Columbia and held open consultations on IED in geneva. France is open to suggestions for solutions on countering this weapon.
    France believes that due to the availableness and lethality of IEDs that these weapons are a significant threat for civilian populations and a major operational risk for their forces involved in the field. France is particularly active in the fight against IED, within the Geneva fora. As a consequence, we co-preside with the Republic of Moldova, within the framework of the amended Protocol II of the CCW, an informal group of experts on IED. In 2016 French ambassador Alice Guitton said “Addressing IED, however, does not start and stop in Geneva. Bilateral co-operations, like the one that France is developing with the Iraqi security forces and Army, are vital. But the action of specialized international organizations is just as important”. France believes that countries affected by these IEDs need to develop operations with their own militaries to help deal with this threat.

  • Rachel_Dick
    Rachel_Dick November 14, 2017 Reply

    As Improvised Explosive Devices become a larger threat, Panama finds itself poorly equipped to handle the issue, but still a great target for terrorism. The Panama Canal, responsible for five percent of world trade, serves as this target of terrorism. As a great number of powerful nations, including the United States, trade using the Canal, the nation of Panama requests that such nations assist us in combating this threat. As a number of nations benefit from the canal, we believe it is a global project to combat the threat of Improvised Explosive Devices both here in Panama, and throughout the world. Because these devices are often made from commonly found materials, the nation of Panama urges the nations in this council to consider the rights of nation states and the rights of their individual citizens. This is an urgent issue which must be tackled without violating national sovereignty. Because Improvised Explosive Devices are most commonly used by non-military citizens, it will be difficult to halt the creation of such devices without impeding on the individual rights of the citizen or prevent the creation of complicated restrictions.

  • avatar image
    Caroline Munson November 14, 2017 Reply

    Country: Swaziland
    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Caroline Munson
    School: Williamston High School

    Firstly, Improvised Explosive Devices have taken over the battlefield weapons in the past decade. Mostly used in the Middle East in countries like Iraq and Afghanistan, they are widely used by terrorist groups such as the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. They are considered to be some of the most dangerous weapons used in war because they are made from common materials and can blow up at any moment killing military personel, and even civilians. Substances like bleach, fertilizer, cleaning solvents, hydrogen peroxide and gunpowder appear in IEDs as explosive materials or catalysts. Planting IEDs in active war zones is a common occurrence, but when the conflict is over and some are still rigged, then it becomes a real problem. With the simplicity of the manufacturing, it is difficult to eradicate the future production os IEDs without limiting civilians. Improving the durability of military vehicles and armour and regulating the consumerism of common items in IEDs are good policies to start with to prevent an increase in the manufacturing of these but steps also need to be taken to lessen the present amount of IEDs in unstable countries and how to eradicate them safely.
    For the most part, IEDs have not been an issue in Swaziland. Most of the worries go to the Middle East in Iraq and Afghanistan. Swaziland has had some bombings however. According to the Overseas Security Advisory Council, there have been attacks on government buildings using petrol bombs. Most IED attacks have been aimed at bridges but do not inflict damage. In the summer months of 2010, Swaziland had multiple incidents of IED attacks targeting the houses of police or members of the parliament. “Civil unrest is not usually an issue in Swaziland but protest and strikes turned violent are fairly common,” said a Times of Swaziland article. The US has spent billions of dollars on counter IED equipment and improving the protectiveness of humvees as the number of deaths by IEDs has gone up exponentially. Not only are IEDs used in active and inactive war zones, but they are also widely used by terrorists. They allow terrorists to attack from a distance and cause great destruction. One tactic they use is to warn authorities first to attract attention and cause disruption, not necessarily death, since most attacks are made as a political point. Terrorists in South Africa have found that the border between South Africa and Mozambique is not very effective in detecting them, which allows them to enter Swaziland, disrupting their Suppression of Terrorism Act.
    Back in 2008, the STA was passed to regulate its citizens to abide by the international law of anti-terrorism. However, the language in which this act used terrorism needs to be amended. Another approach used by Swaziland to reduce the amount of illicit weapons was a Weapons Destruction Project in 2016. However, that only covered weapons such as guns. The threat of IEDs is a different issue, and one not mainly prevalent in Swaziland. The nation of Swaziland believes that the most effective way to eradicate new IEDs from being distributed to Islamic states is to go after the manufacturer of the components. Turkey is a major choke point for items such as containers, chords, detonation cords, chemical precursors and wires. Some countries like China, Russia, Brazil, India and the Netherlands serve the Turkish markets for these items and resell them. India however allows these items to be exported with a license to entities in Turkey and Lebanon. Swaziland hopes to work with other UN member states like Germany, Canada, Italy and others to hopefully reduce the manufacturing and trade of these substances; as well as improve the protectiveness of battle equipment to ensure less casualties.

  • Heather1809
    Heather1809 November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: The Russian Federation

    The use of IEDs is a serious topic for our committee to be debated. The Russian Federation is always working to combat terrorism in the international community. This is a noticeable trend among nations as, we, as an international community no longer fight wars as we did in the past. This has required Russia and many other countries to expands their special operations forces. Russia believes that countries that don’t have the capacity to expand their special operations forces but are experiencing a threat, should create charter-based agreements in order to limit interference from other nations in a threatened nations domestic affairs while still allowing the action that needs to be taken, be taken. Russia is working with many nations in charter-based agreements that reflect mutual benefit among parties as well as respect.
    At the end of September, Russia had dismantled 1500 IEDs left behind by ISIS terrorists in a few days using the latest equipment including IMP-S2 mine detectors, INVU-3M portable non-contact explosive detectors, and OKO-2 radar subsurface sounding devices. Russia believes that it is action that must be taken to make post-conflict clean-up possible as we demolish hostile and dangerous zones amongst civilians.
    The Russian Federation strongly believes that any action that is taken reflects mutual respect for all nations involved. The should be a strong broad-based coalition within the international community against terrorism and Russia believes that this committee will get there.

    • avatar image
      Heather Rae Rose November 22, 2017 Reply

      Delegate Heather Rose, Royal Oak High School

  • K_botswana2017
    K_botswana2017 November 14, 2017 Reply

    SUBMITTED TO: The Disarmament and International Security Committee
    FROM: Botswana
    SUBJECT: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

    Improvised explosive devices are one of the most dangerous items left over conflict. People, especially children, may be curious of what an item is and it may turn out to be an IED. The threat of IEDs becomes increasing prevalent the longer that a conflict is waged. While cleaning up IEDs is very important for the safety of the people living in areas of conflict, the Disarmament and International Security Committee should focus on preventing IEDs from ever being made. If we can stop these unfortunate weapons of terror from being constructed, then eventually we will not have to focus on cleaning up the leftover IEDs from areas where there is no longer conflict.

    There needs to be a consensus on how the international community can stop the materials, such as chemicals or scraps left over from military items, from leaving where they ended up after the conflict or war that was in that region has ended. Possibly the United Nations peacekeepers could enter the area to make sure that those items are properly disposed of before terrorists or non-state actors have the opportunity to ravaged the region for those supplies that could be used in creating IEDs. If the United Nations was in charge of disposing of those items, then it would be clear to not only the forces that would have otherwise used them for destruction, but also to the countries in which the conflict took place, that the items will not be used again to cause harm to anyone.

    The committee should discuss who or what entity will be in charge of trying to clean up IEDs after a conflict or war has ended. Will it be up to each individual country in which the conflict took place, or up to the United Nations itself to try to clean it up using its own workers, or possibly even a non-governmental organization? Most likely the nation that will have had that travesty occur on its soil will not be able to properly dispose of the IEDs leftover itself and there most likely will be other more pressing matters to the nation to deal with than for with as of yet undiscovered and not yet exploded devices.

    In committee, a good resolution shall cover how the nations where conflict or war took place will be able to either clean up the leftover IEDs themselves or will get help from the United Nations itself or possibly a NGO without also having further debt put onto their shoulders. The answer to the question of who should make sure that the materials that are leftover from conflict are not taken and moved by non-state actors or terrorists also needs to be included in the resolution that DiSec passes on this topic.

    The Republic of Botswana will further speak about the ways in which IEDs will be prevented from being further created and hopefully never used again. Botswana looks forward to accomplishing a constructive resolution that will address the issues of who is going to be cleaning the IEDs and how that will occur through a collaborative effort of all nations involved to help better the geopolitical sphere.

    • K_botswana2017
      K_botswana2017 November 22, 2017 Reply

      The name of the delegate of Botswana in DISEC is Kayla Fleishans.

      • K_botswana2017
        K_botswana2017 November 22, 2017 Reply

        Kayla Fleishans is from the delegation of Botswana from Royal Oak High School.

  • Roypapps91
    Roypapps91 November 15, 2017 Reply

    DISEC
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Namibia
    Sophia Papp

    Improvised explosive devices present an international threat to armed forces, civilians, peacekeepers, and infrastructure alike. Their large capability for destruction, inexpensiveness and accessibility make them an attractive choice for those engaging guerilla warfare and acts of terrorism. According to USA Today, “Somewhere between more than half to two-thirds of Americans killed or wounded in combat in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have been victims of IEDs planted in the ground, in vehicles or buildings, or worn as suicide vests, or loaded into suicide vehicles, according to data from the Pentagon’s Joint IED Defeat Organization or JIEDDO.” A suicide bombing using IEDs at an Ariana Grande concert in Manchester, England, resulted in the death of 22 concert attendees, the injury of many more, and mass fear. Namibia stands with its allies who’ve been victim of the use of IEDs and encourages action in the containment of these weapons.

    Efforts have been made by the United Nations to counter the threat of IEDs by: increasing arms stockpile security, improving weapon transport security, controlling the import/export of main IED components, cooperating on international data sharing, and implement detection forces in high risk areas, such as airports. All of these efforts have been made under The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Amended Protocol II (1996). The prevention of the use of IEDs can also go hand-in-hand with preventing terrorism, as weakening terrorism diminishes the use of such weapons. The United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Security Council resolution 1624 calls upon nations to fight terrorism by: prohibiting by law incitement to commit a terrorist act or acts, strengthen the security of their international borders, enforce respect for diversity to prevent indiscriminate targeting of different religions and cultures, and more. Lastly the more modern threat of IED instructions and terrorist propaganda online is an urgent issue. The man who made the IED used to bomb the Boston Marathon was made using instructions from an online Al-Qaeda magazine, and ISIS uses Facebook to recruit foreigners to join their cause. A more recent resolution on terrorism, number 2354, calls for the collaboration of state organizations and the private sector to monitor terrorist content transmitted over the Internet and other communications technologies. Although with good intentions, this specific demand is difficult because of the seemingly endless amount of content on the Internet and balancing the degree to which the state is interfering with private affairs.

    Namibia expects these current actions and resolutions to be enforced and utilized in debate, but for more action to be done. The trade and distribution of important components of IEDs, such as industrially produced detonators, detonating cords and industrially produced explosives, should be more highly monitored in regions where they are likely to be repurposed for violent uses, such as Afghanistan.
    Avoiding terrorism, and therefore the possible use of IEDs, is also an important component of a strong resolution. All states should prioritized creating a culture that accepts diversity and promotes mental health for the good of itself and the world. More should be done to strengthen the state and private sector relationship in fighting for a safer Internet, such taking down terrorist Facebook pages, terrorist propaganda, and detailed designs for making IEDs. Lastly, methods to enforce these acts and monitor their progress are vital to maintaining peace.

    A strong resolution, one which Namibia would support, would address these issues thoroughly and not leave any room for misinterpretation or failure. Namibia looks forward to compromising on a strong resolution, and working with all the members of DISEC for a safer, more peaceful, and IED-free world.

    Sources:
    https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1996/05/19960503%2001-38%20AM/Ch_XXVI_02_bp.pdf
    http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/bestpractices/res1624.pdf
    https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/12/18/ied-10-years-blast-wounds-amputations/3803017/
    https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/sc12839.doc.htm
    https://undocs.org/S/2017/375

  • avatar image
    Laura Lynch November 15, 2017 Reply

    11/4/17
    SUBMITTED TO: DISEC
    FROM: Cuba
    SUBJECT: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

    The use of Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by non-state actors and terrorist groups has skyrocketed in the last decade. The acts of these groups are a concern to all nation’s security due to devastating effects that span far past the initial explosion. It is the Republic of Cuba’s belief that action by countries should be immediate and sustained, which by result would mend problems prior to their formation.
    The Republic of Cuba understands the massive threat posed by these weapons, and has provided protection to it’s own country with vigilant, preventative action. A signatory of General Assembly resolution 71/72, The Republic of Cuba is a strong advocate of operative clauses such as three and four, which stress accountability. It is crucial that countries take responsibility and take measures to strengthen the management of their own materials and militaries. The Republic of Cuba is also a signatory to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Protocol V, which in Article 3 states “After the cessation of active hostilities and as soon as feasible, each High Contracting Party and party to an armed conflict shall mark and clear, remove or destroy explosive remnants of war in affected territories under its control.” This clearly puts the responsibility into the hands of the state. The assertion of state-based authority will ensure respect of the 51st clause of the UN Charter, in that the response won’t conflict with a state’s own military regulations and therefore won’t overstep on a country’s own right to defend themselves.
    Another method supported by the Delegation of Cuba is a bridging of the information gap between nations as well as government organizations such as INTERPOL on sales of commonly used materials to produce such devices. A more assertive implementation of this network would provide greater security and stability to the international community as a whole.
    The Republic of Cuba recognizes that often time goals are unable to be achieved due to lack of funding and resources. The Republic of Cuba recognizes that often time goals are unable to be achieved due to lack of funding and resources in many regions. So, how can we ensure completion of goals and aid in funding for countries who financially cannot fulfill them? The Republic of Cuba hopes that countries will follow in suit with our action, in an effort to provide protection for all.

  • Jackson_W_Bush
    Jackson_W_Bush November 15, 2017 Reply

    November 13th, 2017
    Submitted to DISEC
    Subject : IEDs
    From Tajikistan

    Improvised explosive devices have made brutal work of people in countries all around the world be it soldiers and civilians alike. Weapons causing such harm are illegal by the Geneva convention sense it is used as a weapon of terror to spread fear throughout the world no matter who developed your nation is it can be struck by an attack with a person using an IED. Another problem with the use of IEDs is even when the war is over an untriggered IED can still be deadly to the civilian populations. To get specific on what an IED is. A IEDs or improvised explosive devices are homemade weapons which can be the size of a shoe box or placed in large quantities in a car or truck. This weapons are used to strike fear into the hearts of Peacekeepers and civilians alike. Now who are the people who use IEDs. The people who use such devices most of them are political or religious extremists

    Thing about IEDs that are a concern to the nation of tajikistan are as follows first of all we would like to find the motivation to make IEDs and because we know we can’t stop the production of IEDs . Secondly we would like to have global participation in counter- terrorism operations. Finally the nation of Tajikistan would like the UN to work on searching out in working out in searching out the IEDs in other nations. The things we would want in a resolution would be. Have a program working on understanding the motivations on making improvised explosives devices so we can work better at eliminating the terrorists and terrorist group. As well we would like for nations to have a optional counter terrorism exercises. As well as having joint counter terrorism raids on terrorist targets in the region. Finally we’d have a after war program where EOD specialists can’t work on safely detonating explosives in the region. Even though a main focus can we IEDs the program would work on getting rid of mines as well as other stockpiles of weapons in post war countries.

    In conclusion the nation of Tajikistan would like to thanks the United Nations and the many counties of this world for hearing our opinion as I hope we can work together to solve this crisis.

  • Schmlea
    Schmlea November 15, 2017 Reply

    Attacks in London, Madrid, Bali, Oklahoma City and other places indicate that improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are among the weapons of choice of terrorists throughout the world. Scientists and engineers have developed various technologies that have been used to counter individual IED attacks, but events in Iraq and elsewhere indicate that the effectiveness of IEDs as weapons of asymmetric warfare remains. The Office of Naval Research has asked The National Research Council to examine the current state of knowledge and practice in the prevention, detection, and mitigation of the effects of IEDs and make recommendations for avenues of research toward the goal of making these devices an ineffective tool of asymmetric warfare. The book includes recommendations such as identifying the most important and most vulnerable elements in the chain of events leading up to an IED attack, determining how resources can be controlled in order to prevent the construction of IEDs, new analytical methods and data modeling to predict the ever-changing behavior of insurgents/terrorists, a deeper understanding of social divisions in societies, enhanced capabilities for persistent surveillance, and improved IED detection capabilities.
    EDA organises a Countering Improvised Explosives Devices (CIED) Basic Search Course in early summer 2011 in Rome. This two week course will be hosted by Italy at the National C-IED Centre of Excellence, in Cecchignola.

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are a significant cause of casualties for European troops on deployed operations. They restrict freedom of movement and give the initiative to an adversary. They often have a strategic political effect gained through the media influencing national will in the home countries. Therefore, it is essential for European Forces to maintain the initiative on deployed operations and, therefore to conduct a comprehensive and effective campaign to counter the effects of IEDs at every level.

    Countering IEDs is one of the top ten priorities stemming from the Capability Development Plan and “Search” is one of the advertised work-streams within CIED. Military Search is the management and application of systematic procedures and appropriate equipment to locate specified targets in support of military operations.

  • MedFrezghi
    MedFrezghi November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and National Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by IEDs
    Indonesia
    Medhanie Frezghi

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are lethal devices constructed from commonly available chemicals and are designed to harm, harass, or distract. First used in World War One, it is used today mostly by radical groups such as Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. IEDs can be created by conventional materials such as bleach, fertilizer, and cleaning fluid. With this ease of creation, it has become a growing threat that increases the tactical advantage of terror groups and other radical organizations. One of the main threats posed by IEDs is the difficulty to detect and disarm the devices, which are put in arbitrary and unexpected locations. IEDs cause hundreds of incidents per month on a global scale, it is under the interest of the First Committee to act upon this threat in order to keep international peace and security. Indonesia remains ready at any time to assist with peacekeeping operations and Countering IED (C-IED) actions. Currently, the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) seeks to prohibit the use of certain conventional weapons deemed especially harmful and fatal. The United Nations must address this issue further in order to limit the growing spread of improvised explosive devices by non-state armed groups and rogue individuals.

    According to the Global Terrorism Database, Indonesia has succumbed to 17 attacks with the use of IEDs since 1981 in major cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, and Poso, resulting in 326 injuries and 78 deaths. Indonesia is a supporter of many treaties and conventions such as the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC), signed in 1972, and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC), signed in 1993. Indonesia is also a signatory for the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, all targeting the end of certain conventional weapons. On a national level, Indonesia has adopted a counterterrorism squad in response to IED attacks in 2002 entitled Detachment 88 which has had success specifically in apprehending IED users that threaten society and countering IEDs through disarmament. Indonesia is also one of the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), formed in 1967, which works to promote cooperation, democracy, security, peace, and stability throughout the region. Nationality, Indonesia strives to preserve a peaceful state and reduce the number of terror attacks caused by IEDs in order to reduce fatality and mortality in the nation

    Indonesia proposes that the United Nation limit movement of chemical agents and materials that are used in the creation of IEDs such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and military war scraps. Also, Indonesia calls for increased personnel and interest in the search and removal of IEDs. In Indonesia, IEDs are one of the most commonly used forms of terror-weapon used by Islamic extremists. In order to limit injuries and deaths in Indonesia and around the globe the UN must further develop countries’ disarmament programs. A resolution that calls for the limitation of the movement of IED forming compounds, the cleaning of IEDs, and that also advocates for an increase in disarmament programs will help Indonesia and other countries around the world combat the threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices.

  • avatar image
    Ruark Wicka November 15, 2017 Reply

    11-14-17
    Submitted to: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    From: The Republic of Chad
    Subject: Improvised Explosive Devices

    IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) are a major issue affecting the Republic of Chad. In the last year alone 488 people have died due to these kinds of attacks. As the figure shows IEDs do harm to the people of Chad and it is an issue that is very important to our country. In other parts of the world not only do more people die from IEDs per year, but more are dying. We must understand the causes of why citizens of these countries would make IEDs and how we can prevent them from being made.
    There is no feasible way to stop every person from making a IED in their home. We cannot search every house daily to see if someone is putting a nail bomb in a shoe box and putting it under a police cruiser. Chad has seen too often radicalized people resorting to terrorism to deal with their unfortunate lives. This is why we must ask a very simple question. Why do people resort to making IEDs? Why do people turn to radicalism to try and find meaning in their lives? In Iraq for instance, when the coalition came people were scared of them, and when their country was bombed every day, and living in fear that one day a soldier from a foreign land would come and kill them they resorted to the message of radicalism and used IEDS against the Coalition forces, to deadly effect. We reaffirm that their is no way we can stop everyone from making a IED, but we ask how can we prevent people from being radicalized to the point where they do make IEDs.
    Chad believes that the first step for stopping radicalization is community engagement projects. When Chad was given funds for radio stations and job training centers from the TSCTP (Trans Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership) it empowered youths to better their lives and seek new employment opportunities. When you are engaged with friends and family working to make your lives better or sitting in your living room listening to the radio it gives people hope. The more we invest in radio stations and job training centers and other community engagement projects we can much more easily take people’s minds off radicalization. Another way to cut off radicalization attempts is to invest in countries locally combating terrorist groups that attempt to seduce people into their group. For example, in Chad when it was realized the Boko Haram was helping to create IEDs and plan attacks on Chadian soldiers, the Chad government invested in new weapons to root out the Boko Haram in the Lake Chad Region, and while it was costly, the Chadian army was able to root out many of the supporters of the Boko Haram and the area became safer. If we follow this approach in other countries, by arming soldiers to root out terrorists we can cut off the radical messages from the source. As we have seen funds seemingly go nowhere before, the transactions will be audited every 6 months to make sure they are going to the right places, the same applies to the community engagement projects.
    Chad realizes the success of the UN Security Council resolution 2178 point 16 states “Encourages Member States to engage relevant local communities and non-governmental actors in developing strategies to counter the violent extremist narrative that can incite terrorist acts, address the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremism, which can be conducive to terrorism, including by empowering youth, families, women, religious, cultural and education leaders, and all other concerned groups of civil society and adopt tailored approaches to countering recruitment to this kind of violent extremism and promoting social inclusion and cohesion.” Spoken more plainly this resolution encourages non governmental community engagement projects to help people stay away from the ideas of radicalization, and encourages actors, youth, families and education leaders to help keep the ideas of radicalization away with positive needs. Chad urges more funding to be presented for community engagement projects such as these, with equitable donations from nations based on their GDPs.
    Chad is ecstatic to be apart of a committee discussing a topic that affects its citizens every day, and hopes to work with other nations on how to solve the problem of Improvised Explosive Devices.

  • Isaiah_Daik
    Isaiah_Daik November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country:Denmark
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic:Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Isaiah Daik
    School: Williamston High School

    A difficult part of the problem that Improvised Explosives create is regulating and tracking the parts that make up Improvised Explosive Devices without infringing on the rights of everyday civilians. As over 6,000 deaths were reported to be caused by IEDs in 2016 the amount of government interference when purchasing potential ingredients for harm is underwhelming. Due to most cases of use occurring at the hands of non-state actors, restricting the movement of potential components of harm could prove effective. The United Nations must determine how to limit IED construction within IED rampant countries without infringing on national sovereignty.

    In addition, Denmark is heavily involved with defending against the threat of improvised explosive devices. As a member of the European Union Denmark is part of the counter-IED work along with countries like Tunisia, Lebanon, and Egypt. Denmark complies with the current framework for the International Mine Action Standards, and has contributed 4.4 million dollars to the Humanitarian Mine Action Response in Syria and Iraq. Denmark also makes contributions to the Conflict Armament Research, meant to track the sources of arms and ammunitions, and is a signatory to all protocols provided by the The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. As a member of the European Union Denmark will continue to uphold the international standard of combating the threat of Improvised Explosive Devices.

    In conclusion, Denmark believes that in order to reduce the widespread deaths caused by IEDS ,International Mine action standards must be kept up to date and complied with. The United Nations must urge countries to take stronger actions against the purchase of potential ingredients within their borders. Similar to the European Union, Denmark would like to see a resolution passed that encourages assistance to third countries world countries through programs such as the Conflict Armament Research program that help developing countries prepare against the threat IEDs create. Denmark feels that this would be a step in the right direction for the world and expects other European Union members to support this.

  • Jd.lancaster
    Jd.lancaster November 15, 2017 Reply

    Iraq is greatly opposed to IEDs and believes that they need to be handled with utmost care and caution.

    The problem is that non-state groups get their hands on these ‘homemade’ bombs and can plant them like landmines, making it incredibly hard to clean and find creating a danger for everyone. These bombs kill civilians and combatant meaning they are a problem for everyone. No one is really safe from these because they are hard to spot and disarm.

    Iraq agrees with many countries that money should be spent on finding and disarming these terrible bombs. Be it by increasing military search parties, or funding AIEDs to help neutralize the bombs.

    Iraq hopes that in this conference the UN can allocate money to searching for and disarming these IEDs by using the aforementioned ideas

  • LukeWassink
    LukeWassink November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Israel
    Luke Wassink

    Improvised explosive devices have evolved from their conventional purpose which debuted in earlier wars to what they are today: makeshift explosive devices used for the purpose of terrorism. This topic is a huge issue in countries that deal with terrorism, which is an ever-expanding group. Israel seeks to eliminate IEDs to the best of its potential. IEDs pose a threat to unarmed civilians due to IEDs’ ability to be constructed by non-military groups and used in a wide range of areas. IEDs caused approximately 105,000 deaths or injuries between 2011 to 2015 in 75 countries; 82% of victims were civilians.

    This topic is very much an issue in Israel, where everyday Israeli victims are targeted by extremist groups. Where everyday Hezbollah, a Lebanese militant group, and Hamas, a Palestinian terror group, organize to harm Israeli citizens. In fact, Hamas’ charter has clauses dedicated to anti-semitism. Israel has taken a strong stand against the usage of IEDs militarily. They provide terrorists with an easy way to kill non-combatants. Israel has helped fight terrorism, creating the CIMS (Counter IED and Mine Suite), a device that detects improvised explosive devices. Such a device is instrumental to the countering of improvised explosive devices, since the obstruction of terrorism that fuels the usage of IEDs is far off and requires much more effort, the design of a device that can solve the problem to a large degree is important. Israel has also established its own counter-terrorism force solely dedicated to fighting terrorism, the Yamam, which addresses current threats to security by identifying terrorist suspects as well as rescuing hostages. It indirectly addresses IED problems for everyday citizens through obstructing terrorism and therefore the use of bombs. With these efforts, Israel was the victim of only one suicide bombing in 2016, which is very impressive given rampant anti-semitism throughout the Middle East, where the vast majority of attacks occurred. Israel hasn’t signed international treaties regarding improvised explosive devices, as it is able to defend itself from the effects of such without international cooperation, and IEDs haven’t been addressed much in the past. Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu condemned the Assad regime’s usage of barrel bombs with sarin gas at the United Nation’s General Assembly in September. Moreover, he condemns the World Health Organization for passing a Syrian sponsored resolution condemning Israel for its conditions on the Golan Heights, while individuals are slaughtered by improvised explosive devices by Syria.

    Israel recommends to the United Nations to identify an agency that can further develop technology that can address the lethality of IEDs. Negotiating with terrorist states that employ improvised explosive devices is difficult as well as ineffective; adopting Israel’s approach in Counter-IED innovation is significantly more effective. Furthermore, adopting treaties between nations and terrorist groups legitimizes terrorism, something that Israel strongly opposes. It is important for the international community to see past race and religion when we assemble in November, and therefore Israel encourages even the most anti-semitic nations to put people first while searching for a solution. A resolution identifying Hamas and Hezbollah, to name a few, as terrorist groups using IEDs, is what Israel seeks in a resolution.

  • Hiomio123
    Hiomio123 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Qatar
    Mallory Snyder

    The State of Qatar condemns all usage of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). These devices are extremely dangerous, and have killed innumerable innocents. Most often these weapons are used by terrorist organizations, as they are easily constructed out of readily available materials. Qatar has only had one terrorist attack that utilized IEDs. This attack occurred on March 19th, 2005, at the Doha Players Theatre. The attack killed one and injured twelve, and the bomb itself was constructed out of a car. The bomber himself was a Qatari citizen with connections to Al-Qaeda. Since the bombing, our country has made great efforts to ensure that no other attacks occur. As of today, no other bomber has been successful.
    Qatar has had a successful anti-bomb policy that has worked for over a decade. We have cooperated closely with the United States and United Kingdom, and currently is the host of the largest U.S. military base in the middle east. We believe that a strong military presence not only discourages, but almost always prevents these devastating attacks. After the 2005 attack, Qatar has made strides in improving strength and technology in our military.
    IEDs are extremely easy to construct and can be constructed out of almost any available material. Since this is true, it is nearly impossible to limit commercial availability of the materials used to construct these bombs. However, we believe in the complete cleanup of non-commercially available materials used in conflict. We have made an immense effort to control IED usage by increasing surveillance. Since the attack in 2005, we have built up our surveillance infrastructure considerably. Nearly the entire nation is blanketed with security cameras. Qatar’s Ministry of Interior heavily enforces a law that requires businesses around the country to install closed-circuit camera surveillance on their premises. We believe that the widespread monitoring of activity over the country can limit many forms of crime, most notably the use of IEDs and other bombs. We want to make clear that this surveillance network is made up of individual businesses that are protecting their own premises, which we have found to be much more effective than any government oversight.
    Qatar urges the Disarmament and International Security Committee to consider efforts to limit availability of non-commercially available materials post-conflict, and increased surveillance and military to quickly find and deal with threats before they happen. We have found that our regime to deal with IEDs in Qatar has been extremely successful, and we want to offer our help to other countries struggling with IEDs.

  • Nzazvburg
    Nzazvburg November 15, 2017 Reply

    Greece has had a history of dealing with Improvised Explosive Devices, and we are fully committed to anti-IED efforts and strategies. There have been three IED attacks in the last twenty years, including one on a prosecutor, and two on private citizens and property. These attacks, which have killed three and injured two. Not to mention the fact that two IEDs exploded in 1991 that killed eight and injured seven. If these devices continue to spread, more will be killed in more and more. These terrorists are targeting countries that do not have adequate protection against these devices, and as task forces are created, we must spread the technology to defend against these weapons around to the nations who need it. The largest issue at hand, however, is the impact on people’s lives and their ability to live freely without impedance. We need to find a way to create a safer world while keeping people happy and free. We haven’t been able to fully involve ourselves as a nation in this matter, but whatever we can do against these horrendous weapons, Greece will be in line to support it.

  • Adeperno037
    Adeperno037 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Anthony DePerno
    Mattawan High School
    The People’s Republic of China
    Countering the threat posed by IEDs

    The production and implementation of IEDs by non-state terror organizations has yielded a political climate potentially more dangerous than the world has seen in many years. The ease of availability of the components of Improvised Explosive Devices only contributes to this. The use of these weapons has caused unparalleled casualties, both civilian and military.

    On many issues, the People’s Republic of China disagrees with the United States and other western nations on a deep ideological and moral basis, however both of our countries are committed to enhancing counterterrorism cooperation and finding a resolution that not only keeps Chinse safe, but the rest of the world as well. While it is true the People’s Republic of China has a number of boots on the ground in war-torn nations like Afghanistan, and shares a small border with Afghanistan as well, it is hard for China to speak substantively on this matter, for the landscape of our nation is not littered with these a devices like many middle-Eastern and other developing nations.

    Of course, this doesn’t mean we don’t wish to see this issues addressed for the overall safety of our troops as well as the citizens of these said nations. The army of the People’s Republic of China has successfully developed a direct energy weapon which has the ability to render IEDs and other weapons similar useless. Yet, this technology has not been welcomed in the international community, for other western nations believe it poses a direct threat to their own military arsenals; these are claims the People’s Republic of China hold no base or sold ground.

    We would like to see wide-spread usage of this technology in hotbeds of Improvised Explosive Devices in order to guarantee the safety of troops of every nation, and send a direct message to those non-state terror organizations that the international community will put up with these

  • 14682
    14682 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Jordan
    Delegate: Alex Linn

    Improvised Explosive Devices, or IEDs are becoming prominent in the wars of the 21st century. Most commonly used by terrorist organizations such as the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, IEDs pose a threat not only to the military troops fighting in the wars, but innocent civilians who have to live with the threats after the war. IEDs are explosive devices that are commonly created by using commercial materials such as fertilizer, bleach, brake fluid, or cleaning solvents. These everyday items cause great casualties and damage to the military forces. Furthermore, the IEDs left in the battlegrounds after the war are still active, taking the lives of many innocent civilians who cross its path after the conflict in that region are over. With the risks stemming from IEDs in mind, the United Nations must attempt to solve the problems of IEDs during, and after the war.

    IEDs are a huge problem in and around the region of Jordan. Bordered by Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, Jordan is amidst much of the conflict of the middle east. Jordan is also the target of many terrorist attacks from ISIS such as the Al-Karak attack in 2016 and the Amman bombings in 2005. In the Amman bombing, coordinated IEDs were detonated on three hotel lobbies resulting in the death of 60 civilians and injuring 115 others. Over 50% of civilians killed or injured by explosive devices have been as a result of IEDs. The threat that IED poses to the civilians of Jordan constantly are in effect. It is important that the United Nations proposes a solution to this problem or the IEDs will constantly cause fear and terror in Jordan, and the countries surrounding it.

    Jordan proposes that the United Nations do three things to combat IEDs. First, the United Nations should create funding for research regarding counter IEDs which decrease the risk of military personnel falling prey to IEDs. Second, the United Nations should urge countries to limit the movement of resources that are used to build IEDs. As stated, fertilizer, bleach, brake fluid, or cleaning solvents are all materials used to create IEDs and the purchasing of these materials should be monitored in order to restrict mass creations of IEDs by terrorist organizations. This would help reduce the frequency of IED casualties and limit the amount of IEDs used. Lastly, Jordan requests the topic of post war clean up to be discussed regarding IEDs. After a war is over, many IEDs are left scattered across the region taking the lives of civilians. The military should be responsible in aiding the locating and destruction of active IEDs after conflict has left an area. This will greatly reduce the deaths of innocent civilians as a result of IEDs. If all three proposals are implemented by the countries of the United Nations, the threat and use of IEDs will decrease allowing the civilians and military to live more peacefully.

  • Hdavidson032
    Hdavidson032 November 15, 2017 Reply

    DiSec
    Threat from Improvised Explosive Devices
    Vietnam
    Hunter Davidson

    As technology, and the world as we know it, get thrusted further into the future, new and deadly methods of enacting terror and conflict continue to emerge. People have been crafting makeshift bombs for decades, but the current threat of IEDs is larger than perhaps it has ever been in the past. Warfare continues to evolve into more isolated, guerilla-style fighting, and the threat of IEDs killing innocent civilians becomes more and more prevalent.

    Vietnam has bore witness to a fair share of IED warfare. During the Vietnam War, the Viet Cong employed a vast array of IEDs to wage war on their enemies; in fact, 33% of casualties from that war came from the use of IEDs and manufactured mines. Booby traps like Mason Jars filled with napalm, rigged with a tripwire, or grenades with a rubber-band pulley system were all utilized in a feared Viet Cong fighting force. The threat to defense personnel and police task forces in disposing of these IEDs is certainly great, but we also must express our grave concern for innocent civilians that suffer collateral damage from this guerilla warfare.

    As a country that has witnessed the merciless destruction of Improvised Explosive Devices in the past, Vietnam feels incredibly empathetic towards the cause of removing IEDs in other countries. Vietnam is in full support of the UN funding and training a specialized Counter-IED (C-IED) task force. The quicker we can reach a solution to eradicate the threat posed by IEDs (specifically by terrorist groups like ISIS, Boko Haram, al-Shabaab, etc), the quicker we can establish a safer global community.

  • Alex.j.encalada
    Alex.j.encalada November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    The Kingdom of Belgium
    Alex Encalada-Stuart

    Addressing the security and humanitarian issues posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is integral to promoting safety within the international community. Belgium is committed to ensuring a reduction in the number of casualties caused by these devices, particularly among civilians, who are disproportionately affected by the indiscriminate nature of IEDs.

    As of 2016, improvised explosive devices have been deployed in roughly half of the world’s countries, and are especially favored among armed non-state actors, including terrorist organizations, for their versatility and relative ease of construction. IEDs pose serious security and humanitarian threats in the asymmetrical conflicts in which they are implemented. From 2012 to present, IEDs have made up 105,071 casualties, 59% of those caused by explosive conflict. Approximately 80% of total IED casualties are civilian deaths, making these devices a serious threat to communities and humanitarian aid initiatives. Additionally, the presence of IEDs after the resolution of a conflict can continue to cause fatalities, create political and economic instability, and fracture peace-building efforts.

    Belgium has lead and engaged in several initiatives dedicated to countering the threat of IEDs, both in the European Union and the United Nations. On 23 December 2016, Belgium signed on a 3-year European Defense Agency research and technology (R&T) agreement, designed to improve IED detection methods. While IEDDET’s main objective is to improve the operational mobility of armed forces, the technology it pioneers could also be utilized in IED cleanup and other measures to prevent civilian casualties. In addition, Belgium co-chairs the UN working group, coordinated by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), dedicated to developing mine-clearing standards and assessing training and equipment needs, along with other crucial tasks.

    Belgium supports greater international cooperation on counter-IED (C-IED) research and initiatives to aid affected countries. Furthermore, due to the unconventional nature of improvised explosive devices, we believe it is necessary for this committee to continually update standards on dealing with the threats posed by IEDs, particularly as it pertains to Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD). Belgium thus advocates for broadening the role of UNMAS in dealing with the threat posed by IEDs, in order to encompass multiple aspects of the issue. Ultimately, international cooperation and a comprehensive initiative on the issues of IEDs is necessary to ensure continued security in vulnerable regions.

  • Nadirh
    Nadirh November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Imposed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Turkey
    Mr. Nadir Hamid

    Improvised Explosive Devices otherwise known as IEDs are commonly used to threaten countries in the 21st Century. In this century, “The Action on Armed Violence (AOAV) said on Wednesday that 13,340 civilians were killed and injured by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in 2011, compared to 22,735 last year”.These pieces of destructive technology have harmed many innocent civilians. These IEDs are small enough to be concealed, therefore making them deadlier than ever. Although commonly used in the mid-1900s these destructive weapons are making a comeback and are deadlier than ever before. It is essential that the Disarmament and International Security Committee addresses this issue immediately because as of 2017 many countries citizens such as Turkey, Israel, Afghanistan, India and many more are suffering and looking to the United Nations to fix this dismal issue. This committee needs to come up with new ways to combat these destructive devices, as chaos is spreading in Middle Eastern countries as well as others all across the globe. The current ban on these weapons is being rendered ineffective because in our current state there have been many current attacks on many countries including The Republic of Turkey. Just three years ago “Turkey was plunged into a spiral of violence that took a turn for the worse with each passing day. With two major incidents Sept. 6 and Sept. 8, Turkey was introduced to the destructive potential of roadside improvised explosive devices”. This displays that the ban on these destructive weapons needs to be reevaluated and revised by the UN.

    The Republic of Turkey opposes the use of IEDs and want to address this issue as soon as possible as it affecting the lives of citizens in our country. Apart from the attacks that occurred in 2007 and 2015, there have been attacks as recent as 2016. According to Action on Armed Violence “Turkey has experienced several large-scale attacks from the PKK or Kurdistan Workers’ Party and The Kurdistan Freedom Hawk otherwise known as the TAK, for example, the suicide car bombing in Ankara on March 13, 2016, which killed 37 civilians and injured 125.” This instance is a reason for the Republic of Turkey to address this issue with high priority. Turkey has taken some action against IEDs such as implementing technologies like counter-IEDs, which strengthen military vehicles and are highly resistant against attacks using these devices. In an effort in March of 2016, the Turkish government headed by the Defense Minister, İsmet Yılmaz, states that more than “222,000 landmines ‘IEDs’ will be cleared, and the country aims to conclude mine clearance operations all across Turkey by 2022”. On the topic of this issue, in 2004 Turkey signed the Ottawa Treaty, a worldwide treaty established on the clearance and banning of anti-personnel mines. Turkey wants to eradicate these weapons and is continuing to work with neighboring countries to limit them once and for all.

    The Republic of Turkey wants to see this problem fixed by enforcing the ban set forth by the CCW (The Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons) to a further extent. One way that the problem of IEDs can be reinforced further is with “Amended Protocol – II of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, which serves as the appropriate framework for this issue, as it lays basic ground rules for the cleanup, legality, and disciplinary measures for IEDs.” Another way is to fix this problem is to expand the use the technologies such as counter-IEDs by equipping them on more military vehicles as well providing them to more government based agencies. The Republic of Turkey looks to the UN and other allies to combat the proliferation of improvised explosive devices in 2017 and further years to come.

  • Zabada46
    Zabada46 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by IED’s
    Honduras
    Zakarya Abada

    Improvised Explosive Devices(IED’s) have led to the death of many innocent citizens around the world and are a main weapon of use for terrorist organizations such as ISIS. They threaten the peace in our country as well as our world as a whole. These landmines hidden beneath the ground are responsible for 63% of coalition deaths in Iraq and they are also used by rebelling groups in Afghanistan.We have had lasting issues with cluster bombs and munitions. Between 1970 and 1995, there were 120 cluster bombs imported into Honduras. We understand firsthand the dangers of bombings on innocent citizens. IED’s also have been jeopardizing innocent lives in Iraq and Afghanistan for over a decade. Terrorism is continuing to spread around the world which will lead to the spread of use of IED’s, only risking further lives.

    Honduras believes IED’s should never be used because of the danger of bombs falling into wrong hands. IED’s are very strong threats to world peace. Syria and Iraq are two countries in the Middle East who are known for their widespread use of IED’s. The lives of their citizens are in constant danger. Honduras has previously signed the Cluster Munition Ban Policy, hoping to eliminate cluster bombs around the world. Honduras played an active role in the creation and ratification of the Convention on Cluster Munition, hoping to follow after the Mine Ban Treaty’s idea to completely prohibit any use. Honduras also signed the Mine Ban Treaty that prohibited landmines with no exceptions. With IED’s becoming a similar threat around the world, Honduras is fearful of the drastic consequences it can have on any nation and pursue complete restrictions.

    We have not done enough to stop IED’s from being the international threat they are. A similar convention as the ones involving the Cluster Munition and landmine issues must be established. Counter-IED efforts need to continue being funded in order to strengthen our intelligence about the issue. As we learn more, we can adopt new ways to neutralize and prevent IED’s. Honduras strongly urges the world to not only become more aware of these apparent dangers, but also attempt to make changes to the these concerns, as it is our job to protect the world we live in. We need to pursue the destruction of terrorist organizations, organizations who first implemented IED’s into unearthly acts. Changes must be made fast, or people will continue to die around us.

  • Samrechner
    Samrechner November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by IEDs
    Bolivia
    Samuel Johnson Rechner

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) pose a significant risk to world safety. With the majority of IED attacks occurring in populated areas, 82 percent of recorded IED casualties from 2011-2015 have been civilians. Typically created and detonated by terrorist organizations to spread terror, political turmoil, and government instability, IEDs are massive tools of societal destruction. In Afghanistan, one of the world’s most landmine-ridden countries, IEDs kill 10 times as many civilians than do landmines. By wreaking havoc upon the innocent, IED attacks create an environment of sustained insecurity which destroys the morale of security forces, hinders military recruitment and impedes security sector reform. Because of this, IEDs are able to sensitize government decisions and therefore influence lawmakers. Those unwilling to conform to terrorist threats and IED detonations have witnessed the effect. In 2015, 38 direct IED attacks against United Nations personnel and peacekeepers resulted in property damages, sustained injuries, and fatalities. The United Nations must continue its discussion of IEDs following the 2015 Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping. The United Nations must solve and regulate this heinous weapon, civilian killer, and country underminer.

    As a first-hand witness of harmful IED impact, the Bolivian government understands both the severity and complexity of countering threats posed by IEDs. A signatory of the Ottawa Treaty
    Cluster Munition Convention, and Conventional Weapons Convention, Bolivia strongly believes in international security through peaceful disarmament. The Bolivian government experienced the bulk of IED usage during the early 2000’s in which the explosive devices were used by drug traffickers in rural regions to influence town politicians, assassinate law-enforcement officials, and kill enemy cartel members. In the Chapare Region, considered by many to be the largest haven for illegal cultivation of cocaine, IEDs killed 7 Bolivians and injured an additional 83 in 2003. Since 2008, however, Bolivia’s drug violence and IED usage has significantly decreased due to the unorthodox implementation of coca agricultural regulations and the removal of the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA).

    The Bolivian government recommends not only a counterable solution to IEDs, but also the funds necessary to independently implement such regulations. It is also suggested that DISEC increase regulation and supervision on the harmful explosive components typically found in IEDs, including ANFO, TATP, and EGDN. Bolivia views IEDs as a significant threat to democracy and hopes the international community works towards providing an effective solution to this growing problem.

  • Ellastauffer
    Ellastauffer November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Bangladesh
    Ella Stauffer, Forest Hills Northern HS
    Impoverished Explosive Devices (IEDs) in the last three years, has cost over 53,000 human lives from around the world. There is a wide range of IEDs but they are easily made and very cheap. A commonly used IED is a roadside bomb. These killing devices should be eliminated to a certain extent before they start killing even more people. Bangladesh believes that this is a very important topic to discuss considering the amount of people that have lost their lives to these devices.
    As of now, Bangladesh has had no serious issue with IEDs, but we are still concerned about the possible threat posed by these explosive devices in the future and want to prevent them as much as possible. Although, 2 months ago, three bangladeshi peacekeepers were killed as a result of IEDs in Mali.
    In 2015, Afghanistan took charge and created a resolution which focused on the need for an effective global and comprehensive approach to counter the proliferation of these weapons. Resolution 70/46 included solutions such as a call for a consistent collection of data, raising awareness, international technical assistance, and victim assistance. This also called for restrictions on the materials used to create IEDs. Bangladesh signed this solution.
    Bangladesh believes there should be a social awareness programs to help prevent the spread of these devices. Security forces should be trained and also use modern equipment to combat the increasing threat. There should be restrictions on the selling and buying of the readily available ingredients used to make these devices. IEDs should also be disposed easily in order to prevent further creation of these devices.

  • FDuong
    FDuong November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Security Cooperation in East Asia
    Country: Republic of Korea

    The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP) was established in 1993 with the goal of maintaining peace and cooperation in the Asia Pacific. Sadly, over the years, East Asia has become an increasingly dangerous region due to its many conflicts. Japan and China are feuding over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is threatening the safety of the region. The United States of America has helped the situation in the past, but with the switch to Trump’s Administration, policies must be adjusted.
    The Republic of Korea (ROK) was birthed from the division of the Korean Peninsula. ROK is deeply invested in this topic, as it greatly affects our people. After DPRK’s withdrawal from the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 2003, they have conducted six nuclear tests. Each test is more and more hazardous, and ROK is constantly threatened by our neighbor. We fear for our safety. Though the United States’ Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system’s deployment has strained some relations, the THAAD system helps us maintain our citizen’s security.
    Above all, the Republic of Korea simply wants peace and stability in the region. While we would support sanctions, we also believe in stressing non-tolerance of nuclear programs. Also, ROK would be open to hosting peace talks to foster diplomatic relations. A continuation of the Six-Party talks would be supported, and we are open to dialogue. We push for strong efforts towards a path to denuclearization to ensure a safer region for all. Citing President Moon Jae-in’s “Berlin Initiative”, ROK will walk to peace if others will walk the right path as well.

  • FDuong
    FDuong November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
    Country: Republic of Korea

    Ever since World War One, the use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has grown and spread to many terrorist groups. IEDs are homemade and improvised devices with the intention to create mass destruction. Additions such as hazardous chemicals, nails, or glass fragments can make these weapons more dangerous. Along with the health effects IEDs pose, they can also damage municipal cities or serve as a distraction for a second attack. Unexploded IEDs pose a threat as well. As unpredictable weapons, they must be disposed of properly.
    The Republic of Korea cares deeply about IEDs and their harms. Mr. Kim Young-moo of the Republic of Korea said, “the Republic of Korea Government is exercising tight controls over anti-personnel landmines and has been enforcing … the moratorium on their export since 1997.” We have ratified the Amended Protocol II and V of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. IEDs are a great threat to international security, especially with our situation with our neighbors. It is rumored that a certain neighbor is turning to military methods, such as using IEDs. Fearful for our citizens’ well being, the Republic of Korea condones the use of IEDs. The government has invested much money into various United Nations Programmes to counter this threat.
    Article 1, Chapter 1 of the United Nations Charter states the mission is “to maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace.” Therefore, the Republic of Korea believes that we must uphold this principle and develop strong counter-IED efforts. We hope that other countries will monitor their trade to prevent scrap materials from falling into the wrong hands.

  • SydToles
    SydToles November 15, 2017 Reply

    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country:Portugal
    Delegate: Sydney Toles
    School: Williamston High School

    Improvised explosive devices are claiming the lives of the citizens living in war torn areas at an alarming rate. Statistics from the AOAV (Action on Armed Violence) display that 188,325 injuries and casualties have been allied to IEDs worldwide from 2011-2015. 77% of these lives claimed were those of innocent civilians. The number of civilians killed or injured by IEDs increased by 48% from 2011-2017. In the areas with a high population density it is shown that 91% of those injured in these areas are civilians. These incidents of terror and hate are not isolated. They’re occurring all over the world. Over the past five years deaths and injuries linked to IEDs have been reported in approximately 110 countries and territories. However, out of these 110 countries and territories, five of them are being affected at a greater rate. Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Yemen currently have the highest civilian fatality rate. In Iraq, Syria, Pakistan and Afghanistan over 10,000 death of innocent civilians have been reported in recent years.

    The element that makes this conflict so hard to resolve is the sheer fact that it’s become fairly easy to get a hold of IEDs or materials needed to make IEDs. Advancements in technology such as 3D printing is setting humanity back in the sense that terrorist organization now have the technology to print materials needed to construct these explosives. 3D printing allows mass production of essentials parts for a low cost. Currently these “homemade explosives” range in price from $200-$20,000 and are made from materials such as ammonium nitrate fertilizer, potassium chlorate, fuel, and wires. These materials can all be purchase on online shopping websites such as Amazon which is troubling due to the amount of harm these items can cause when mixed with each other.

    At the moment Portugal is facing a debt crisis and though we sympathize with the countries and territories who are plagued with these horrendous acts of terror we are not currently able to provide as much foreign aid to assist with this conflict as we would like. Our financial restrictions will not interfere with the amount of effort we will show. Portugal will work hard with other nations to help eliminate the use of IEDs. We believe we can lessen the numbers of explosives produced by making the materials used to create the bombs harder to obtain.

  • Alexa.banning23
    Alexa.banning23 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Burkina Faso
    Committee: DISEC (GA)
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Alexa Banning
    School: Williamston High School

    The most urgent issue relating to this topic is the illegal selling of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) in the hands of terrorist groups. Furthermore, there is the issue of being attacked by terrorists on neighboring communities along with their own. At the turn of the century the amount of Improvised Explosive Devices have been widespread across various nonstate terrorist groups. Due to the increase in terrorist groups and illegal selling of these weapons many people have gotten killed, injured, or are petrified. For example, due to the elevating conflicts with Iraq and Afghanistan in 2011 and 2013, more than 53,000 civilians were killed or injured due to IEDs. Because IEDs can be simply made from common goods, it is becoming increasingly difficult to regulate their distribution. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons amended its second protocol which banned the use of IEDs in 115 nations who ratified the CCW. The reason for the use of this weapon is also due to the fact that it is easy to take out small targets and then terrorist groups gain more power towards larger forces.

    Burkina Faso is not currently impacted by IEDs, at least not directly. Currently they are more focused on what they are able to plan or do for the future in order to prevent them from being attacked. They have not faced many threats from IDS compared to neighboring nations such as the attacks in Suhel. However, back in November of 2015 there was a terrorist attack in Burkina Faso that involved IEDs use. A huge part of a Burkina Faso counter activities involve having a very high security border in investigations. Also, they are focused on the building of new border stations due to the fact that the greatest security threat comes from the outside of their borders. The United States has help the development of Burkina Faso’s counterterrorism ideas through funding and support.

    Burkina Faso plans to solve this pressing issue by bettering their security around the borders. With the support systems and funding of neighboring countries, nations will be able to prevent numerous illegal smugglings of IEDs, in addition to the entering your terrorist groups. Burkina Faso believes with proper funding that their security around the idea of security around their border would it be able to decrease the amount of terrorist involved attacks. Burkina Faso is interested in allying with countries they are formulations with such as the European Union, Africa, France, the United States, and Asian countries.

  • Timhealey
    Timhealey November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Countering the threat posed by Improvised explosive devices
    Country: Algeria

    IEDs (Improvised Explosive devices), in their old school design, are simple to make. They have been in use since the early 1900’s and they are still being used in the world today by terrorist groups. They pose threats to everyday civilians, and to armies going through the area, in fact more than 3,000 United States soldiers have been killed by IEDs. Algeria has been riddled with rogue IEDs causing citizens to be afraid to go places and live their lives freely.
    182 people have been killed in Algeria in 2011-2015 and actions must be taken. Algeria have destroyed more than 800,000 landmines but there is still more and more being made by terrorist groups. Algeria wants to end the danger to their citizens we are monitoring preaching in mosques to avoid extremist teachings. Algeria is also fighting the online terrorist meetings but this is all to help avoid IEDs. The Algerian government needs more help trying to diffuse all the existing IEDs let alone all the ones being planted by extremists on the daily. Algeria has added lots of security adding more observation posts and building up border control to make it harder for extremists to get into the country with ingredients used to make IEDs. The issue is there is already hundreds of thousands IEDs littering algeria making it almost impossible to make the country safe. The issue is a growing concern.

  • Clanglinais320
    Clanglinais320 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Islamic Republic of Iran
    Caleb Langlinais

    The increase of Improvised Explosive Devices used by illegally armed groups and terrorists over the past several years has caused concerns within the Islamic Republic of Iran. These IEDs have have impacted the life of civilians of Afghanistan, Iraq, and most other Middle Eastern countries along with their socio-economic development. Iran hopes to see this issue solved within the Disarmament and International Security Committee to help to help the lives and countries of the world.

    Iran stresses the need for all States to promote their national policy, legislative and other measures, where appropriate, to prevent the access of illegal armed groups and terrorist to explosives and other materials and components that can be used to manufacture and use IEDs. However, taking into account the wide spectrum of materials that can be used for manufacturing and use of IEDs, and bearing in mind the fact that identifying the scope of such items, many of which have civilian applications, is almost impossible, Iran is of the strong view that such national measures shall, in no way, restrict or limit, under the pretext of IEDs applications, the free and indiscriminate access of all States and their entities and citizens to, research and trade inm and development, production and use of, all goods, materials, equipments, know-how and technologies for civilian purposes.

    Iran believes that the right way to solve this world issue is to push for countries to change their policy to make it impossible or near impossible for terrorist groups to create and use these Improvised Explosive Devices. However, Iran agrees with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter where countries have the inherent right of to use methods for individual or collective self defense. Iran will work to resolve this issue, but we must take into account the inherent security rights and needs of any States and the rights of their citizens in free, indiscriminate, and unconditional access to, research and trade in, and development, production and use of, all goods, materials, equipments, and technologies for peaceful purposes.

  • 24384
    24384 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and National Security Committee
    Countering the threat posed by IEDs
    Malaysia
    Miles Frost Hunsaker

    IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) are bombs that are made from common materials and chemicals, providing a simple approach to cause damage and spread chaos. The dangers of IEDs in the world are continually growing, especially in the Middle East region. The damage and number of casualties caused by them continues to increase yearly, and they are extremely common for many terror groups to use. IEDs and improvised landmines caused 1,075 casualties in 2014 and 1,331 casualties in 2015, and the threat has continued to rise since, yet the United Nations still has not come up with an effective approach. The United Nations must act in order to find an approach to minimize the damage done by IEDS.

    We have experienced our own sustained terrorism threats from 1948 until 1989 from the Malaysian Communist Party, which is what initially brought attention to the dangers of these devices. On April 6 2015, Malaysian authorities arrested seventeen suspected militants who were involved in an alleged terror plot involving IEDs in the capital Kuala Lumpur. In early September of the same year, Malaysian police arrested three people for being involved in activities related to ISIS. Fortunately, despite isolated instances such as these, it has been mostly spared of major terrorist events and damage from IEDs. This said, we still have The Royal Malaysian Police Bomb Data Centre, which provides almost real-time data on bomb incidents and threats. Hundreds of Malaysian officials have been trained in the removal of these dangers, and Malaysia recognizes the threat to its own country as well as its neighbors and fellow members of the UN, such as Iraq, Afghanistan, and India. We strongly recommend bomb data centers such as our own are implemented for every MUN country in order to come closer to peace.

    Malaysia urges the United Nations to contribute to resources to aid in the education of affected governments to be able to prevent, identify, and safely remove IEDs used against their countries. Special attention and aid should be awarded to Afghanistan, Iraq, and India, as they are among the countries most affected by these devices of destruction. Malaysia has skills related to manufacturing many high tech products that could aid in this effort, and offers to support this initiative by dedicating these tools to identify, remove, and disable IEDs. Maximum progress can be achieved through increasing data centers and the training/education of bomb disposal officers, along with contributions of bomb-disarming robots from wealthier countries such as the UK. The creation of bomb centers that provide real-time data and a restriction on the materials used to create IEDs (such as gunpowder and certain fertilizers) can decrease the damage caused by these weapons around the world.

    https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/prep_ied_fact_sheet.pdf
    https://aoav.org.uk/2016/royal-malaysian-police-bomb-data-centre/

  • Qatarfanclub79
    Qatarfanclub79 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Oriental Republic of Uruguay
    Mohamed Malik
    Grand Blanc High School
    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

    While Terror attacks have been on the rise year, the occurrence of them has been continuous throughout history. Terrorist groups such Al-Qaeda have been putting fear in the earliest of billions of people around the world. They manage to rule through instilling fear in everyone beneath them. One popular device used are IEDs, Improvised Explosive Devices. Even to this day, these extremely lethal IEDs are being used around the world. Primarily by Terrorist groups in the middle east, but not limited to this region.

    Recently, in places like the Israeli embassy in Uruguay have been under attack, devices like IEDs were used in the attack. Millions of people have been killed or severely injured as a result of this device. We believe that enough is enough and that something needs to be done. We cannot live in a world where hundred of millions of people are scared or go outside because they fear being bombed. It is absolutely absurd that governments are not finding a way to control their citizens. That is why larger nations are needing to step in and intervene in their affairs. This may make some feel as though their national sovereignty is being attacked.

    The republic of Uruguay believes it best to create a multi-tiered comprehensive plan that benefits all nations. No matter if you are little or small, we all deserve the right to rest easy at night knowing that we are not in danger. It is our responsibility to find a way to decrease the number of attacks and protect our citizens from terrorism.

  • Ctkramer
    Ctkramer November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the threat imposed by IEDs
    Country: Pakistan

    In Pakistan, In the last five years, between 2011 and 2015, at least 13,471 people were killed or injured by them, with 10,868 of these being civilians (over 80%). During that time there were at least 805 incidents – hitting a peak of 211 attacks in 2013. This is clearly a significant issue.

    Pakistan currently feels that in the realm of combat, they are not technically illegal, however if there is any risk of harming citizens, it immediately makes them illegal. Also, if the bombs are being used in a sense of suicide, Pakistan feels it is illegal in the heart of the beast. Also, using children as suicide bombers is illegal in and of itself until they are 15.

    In Resolution #2274 (which was written in March of this year) Pakistan admitted that peace with Afghanistan is well within its realm of interest and we are willing to take the steps to accomplish that.

    Overall, Pakistan is more concerned with the well being of our country and our stance with war; however, we are willing to keep it in mind as we step forward strengthening our relationships with surrounding countries.

  • Davisbr
    Davisbr November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the threat posed by IEDS
    Columbia
    Brandon Davis

    After being used against the armies occupying the Middle East, improvised explosive devices are still in use long after the military forces have abandoned the areas. Made by common, easy to get items, they pose a very dangerous threat as radicals can use them against anybody. Despite our war torn past, Cambodia has only had one IED incident in the last 10 years, which was never set off. There is still a large threat due to the border we share with vietnam which is littered with unidentified explosive devices which can be used for future IED attacks. The IED in other places where it has been used, changed warfare forever, now requiring armies to have specialized protection from these apparatuses. Vehicles who now travel through these areas need added protection on the underside incase they drive over one.

    Cambodia, like stated above, hasn’t had a fatal IED attack in 10 years but we are very concerned for our and multiple other countries safety in the future. We have had some precautions already by having Counter IED instructors to exchange knowledge for the future. Cambodia has one of the highest rates of mortality due to landmines that have not been moved since governments have put them in place. People find these than examine then they detonate killing the people who messed with them. In 2013 alone 22 people were killed by landmines with 89 injured.

    Cambodia believes that it will be near impossible to stop the production of IED as there will always be new ways that they can be made, whether or not you ban or limit certain household materials that could be used in the production of a IED. Cambodia is in support in removing retired landmines from the ground to reduce the casualties of people finding them and using them as part of IEDs.

    • Davisbr
      Davisbr November 15, 2017 Reply

      I unwittingly put Columbia as my country in my title, as you can see from the essay itself, I am actually Cambodia.

  • Antonyehoffman
    Antonyehoffman November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee–Disarmament and International Security
    Topic–Countering the Threat Posed by IEDs
    Country–Yemen
    Delegate–Tony Hoffman

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have caused harm for countries’ military forces and civilians. Mostly used as roadside bombs and by terrorists, they are hidden and sometimes modified with other explosive devices to damage or affect a larger area of space. By 2012 Yemen was close to declaring freedom from the contamination of war from the 1990s, but that is long since past. Of all the 22 governorates of Yemen, some are controlled by Hadi loyalists, the rest by terrorists.

    Attempts to counteract the acts of terrorism have taken place in Yemen, conducted by the Political Security Organisation (PSO) and the National Security Council (NSC). Anti-terrorism units within local forces are responsible for monitoring and preventing terrorist related activities. Despite their capabilities being somewhat limited by the escalating violence, they have had some success in preventing IED incidents.

    Yemen encourages countries to stay strong and unite to prevent the use of IEDs in countries and continue their efforts in training against the use and educating about the danger and severity of these weapons. Yemen calls to action that the use of IEDs be banned and constitute them as illegal. With this, the people of Yemen will be safer as well as people all around the world.

  • Nicholas
    Nicholas November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and National Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    The Kingdom of Thailand
    Mr. Nicholas Jozef Juhasz Stoll

    The Kingdom of Thailand is strongly against the use of improvised explosive devices also known as IEDs. According to gov.uk the website of all governmental departments in the UK, Thailand has been under almost daily attacks by Islamic Insurgencies in in the deep south especially Patani since 2004. Improvised explosive devices are a major and growing problem because of the threat they pose to civilians as well as military personnel. These homemade weapons have had a major impact all over the world especially in conflicts with Islamic insurgency groups in the Middle East, East and South Asia, and throughout Africa. Recently much media coverage has been on the use of IEDs in the Middle East and from April to June of this year, over three thousand people have been killed or injured by IEDs alone in Afghanistan. But, the media has overlooked the deadly use of IEDs in other regions: “The proportion of IED attacks causing casualties was higher in Thailand (54%) than in Iraq (30%) or Afghanistan (21%), according to the TRITON global terrorism database operated by counter-IED specialists Allen-Vanguard Ltd. and the Pentagon’s Joint IED Defeat Organization” (time.com). Thailand has recently been under the threat of IEDs due to Islamic insurgency groups in South Thailand that use improvised weapons to spread fear and disorder.

    IEDs are currently a threat to the people of the Thailand due to insurgency groups in South Thailand which use IEDs as one form of terror spreading and revolting. An article from the Bangkok Post in 2016 reported close to 6,550 deaths and 12,000 injuries caused by these groups, including the Barisan Revolusi Nasional-Koordinasi (BRN-C). These attacks have been committed partially with the use of IEDs. The BRN-C is the leading the insurgency movement in South Thailand with the goals of making the area impossible to govern and spreading terror through assassinations and calculated destruction by secret well-trained militant units. The Runda Kumpulan Kecil, a branch of the BRN-C, made of young Salafi members, has managed to obtain weapons that they use for brutal attacks in the Southern regions of Thailand before fleeing to Malaysia. The Gerakan Mujahidin Islam Patani is another insurgent group which is believed to have relations and sympathies with Al Qaeda. Many of these insurgent groups converted members of the Patani United Liberation Organisation (PULO) which had the goal of liberating the Thai region of Patani. PULO has lost support due to a loss of cultural identity in the area caused by the growth of Salafi Norms. These insurgent groups have used IEDs in attacks against the military junta which has run the government since May 2014 in order to spread fear. In order to counteract such insurgent movements, the Thai government has been working to improve their counter IED technology through increased research and new developments of counter-improvised explosive devices. Also, the Thai government has been working on training their police force to respond to this threat. The police force has been receiving IED response training from the United States of America due to the insurgent group’s recent targeting of tourist locations frequented by U.S. tourists. Thailand’s government is striving to counter these actively revolting groups through attempted negotiation, occasional use of force, and attempting to interrupt the oil and drug smuggling which funds the groups. Internationally Thailand has signed the Anti-Personnel Landmines Convention, Biological Weapons Convention, Chemical Weapons Convention, Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, and Terrorist Bombings Convention.

    The Kingdom of Thailand continues to work towards the solving the problem of IEDs. Thailand would suggest that countries continue to work towards defeating the groups that use this form of warfare. Also, countries should continue to work on the detection and disarmament abilities of their militaries as well as the response capabilities of their police, in order to prevent injury to both the military and citizens of the conflict zones. Also, Thailand suggests that the UN supports the funding of counter-IED efforts such as strengthened military vehicles and facilities which would allow them to be resistant against attacks as to protect people. One more solution is limiting the materials commonly used in IEDs, including both chemical agents and military scrap materials left over from previous conflicts. Post-conflict cleanup of IEDs should also be on the agenda in order to prevent possible construction materials from falling into the wrong hands. Another possible solution is addressing the international flow of capital and trade between state and non-state actors to limit the capacity to produce these indiscriminate weapons. The international community should condemn groups that use these weapons and attempt to do everything in their powers to help those in danger of IED usage.

  • Bencentner5
    Bencentner5 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    The United States of America
    Benjamin Centner

    The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is absolutely detrimental to the spirit of humankind. As of October 18th, 2016, there have been 2,386 U.S. military deaths in Afghanistan. Many of these casualties are the result of the the use of IEDs. Many others are affected by these weapons in even larger quantities. Between 2011 and 2013 over 53,000 civilians died from IEDs. In Afghanistan alone, there have been over 3,000 people killed or injured between April and June of this year. The rise in usage of IEDs is directly related to the rise of terrorism in the middle east. On his visit Saudi Arabia, President Trump depicted this as “a battle between barbaric criminals who seek to obliterate human life and decent people.” All “decent people” across the world have a set of natural rights — afforded to them simply by existing. Everybody deserves an equal chance at success. Everybody deserves an equal chance at family. Everybody deserves an equal chance at life. There are people in this world that do not believe in freedom. There are people in this world that do not believe in equality. There are people in this world that seek anarchy. The use of improvised explosive devices by terrorist cells is a direct attack on the freedoms that inherently accompany humanity.

    The use of IEDs for domestic terrorist attacks is a far too common occurrence in the United States: the Oklahoma city bombing in 1995, a pipe bomb at an MLK memorial march in 2011, two pressure cooker bombs at the Boston Marathon in 2013, and multiple pressure cooker bombs across Manhattan in 2016. The federal government has taken many actions to address these attacks. Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act all “destructive devices” are illegal. Sadly, criminals do not obey the law. Anticipatory actions are simply not enough. Terrorist cells across the world use IEDs as a weapon of mass destruction. Many of these bombs remain active far after being planted. The United States has many task forces operating in the middle east with the mission of disarming these weapons. Many previously ISIS led areas are rampant with roadside bombs. Across the middle east tens of thousands of civilians are not safe in their home due to these dormant IEDs. The Tripartite between the United States of America, Afghanistan, and Pakistan is actively working to reduce casualties by establishing a database. We need to act now. Over 360,000 innocent people have died in Afghanistan due to IEDs.

    The United States of America urges the UN to take action immediately. The first step is education. Children in the middle east should receive an extensive education in identifying IEDs. The current program is not enough. The UN must fund an educational program in order to educate civilians — in order to protect civilians. Education is a vital first step towards prevention, but prevention is not enough. We must take action. The United States has provided more than $2.8 billion in order to combat weapons of destruction. The threat of IEDs can not be stopped completely until terror is obsolete. All humans have the right to exist. By fighting terror, we are fighting for the right to live. By fighting terror, we are combating evil incarnate. By fighting terror, we are affirming each individual’s right to life.

  • Paigeelliott
    Paigeelliott November 15, 2017 Reply

    South Africa
    Paige M. Elliott
    Grand Blanc High School
    Disarmament and National Security Committee (DISEC)
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Improvised explosive devices have been on the scene for a long time, and have been a source of fear for a very long time, but they continue to evolve and become more powerful. These IEDs are easy to obtain, and are extremely fatal. Most of the times they are used by terrorist groups in incidents to hurt innocent civilians through placement of these explosives.

    It is safe to say that the delegation of South Africa is strongly against the production and distribution of improvised explosive devices. We are in the process of trying to develop and test ways to identify improvised explosive devices. We are open to any suggestions for techniques we can use to identify, disable, and detect these explosive devices. Too many instances of fatal bombings have happened in or near our country to ignore. We are in strong support of THAAD services to secure our citizens and spread awareness of the issue. Informing our citizen is another import element we have implemented.

    Under absolutely no circumstances will the delegation of South Africa be in support of implementing these explosive devices. We would like to further inform and educate our citizens of the threat for their safety, and create support for those affected. We will be doing our best efforts to work with other countries in favor of a peaceful environment to find and disable these devices.

  • Charlie_Buckley1
    Charlie_Buckley1 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Canada
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Imrpovised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Charlie Buckley
    School: Williamston High School

    Improvised explosive devices are the number one killer of soldiers in the Middle East today. They are hidden, indiscriminate killers who can’t tell if the person setting them off is an enemy or a civilian. They can survive for years undisturbed by the environment around them, only to be set off years after a conflict has ended by some unexpecting civilians. IEDs and more generally other forms of land mines are still scattered across the world in places like Vietnam and Cambodia, all the way to the Balkans in Europe, remnants of a time now long gone. Yet even after years of peace people still die randomly from these bombs. However, luckily the situation is improving in many parts of the world, slowly these bombs are being uncovered and dis-armed permanently. Sadly, while traditional land mines are falling in use, IEDs are on the rise with hot spots all across the Middle East as well as in parts of Asia, Africa and South America, with the only continents seeing relatively little damage are from North America, Europe and Australia. However that is not to say that these continents have no damage from IEDs, such as the United States who witnessed the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 killing and injuring hundreds.

    Canada has been fortunate enough to avoid the consequences of IED use within the borders of Canada. However outside of Canada, the story is different, IEDs account for over 72% of Canadian deaths while on tour. This is a staggering amount which has been at the center of the Canadian militaries Soldier Defense Initiative for well over a decade. However, despite all of this effort progress has been slow, we have mainly been looking at additional defences on our United States produced Humvees since we already have thousands on stand by. But the Humvee proves to be in and of itself a vulnerable design to IEDs whose potential damage increases faster than the rate at which we could add potential armour. All of this is in sharp contrast with the potential that newer and better armoured troop transports have, which are currently being developed in response to the ever growing threat of IEDs.

    The Canadian Ministry of Defence is currently under the impression that the best way to counter IEDs is to stop the flow of material for them at their source. However, because most of the materials used to create these devices are readily available and even very necessary during peacetime, they are hard to restrict the flow of. Detonators and other components are as inconspicuous as a cell phone or pager, and explosives can easily be made from fertilizer or readily available large caliber shells already in the areas where IEDs are already a problem. So a more practical solution to this problem may be to continue improving IED detection and intelligence along with the protection from and disarmament of the IEDs themselves through increased UN efforts.

  • Chriseyke77
    Chriseyke77 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Germany
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Christopher S. Eyke
    School: Williamston High School

    In recent conflicts in the Middle East, the use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) by terrorist organizations is becoming increasingly prevalent, and the effect that these weapons have on military personnel and civilians in war-torn areas is of great concern. The most notable terrorist organization using IEDs in conflict is Daesh, also known as the Islamic State, which has taken the production of these explosives to a new level. A recent report published by Conflict Armament Research (CAR) investigators stated that Daesh is producing IEDs on a “quasi-industrial” scale, using complex supply chains and funding sources. Furthermore, a different study carried out by CAR identified 50 companies that “produced, sold, or received critical material, such as chemical precursors, detonating cord, detonators, cables, wires, and other electronic components” used by Daesh in the production of IEDs. Out of the 50 companies identified, 13 resided in Turkey and were Turkish-owned. Because of Turkey’s close proximity to conflict areas in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Yemen, Daesh has access to a lot of the materials produce there, which is something that must be curtailed in the future. Although the terrorist organization has suffered significant territorial losses in Syria and Iraq in recent months, the group still remains a physical and ideological threat. As coalition forces liberate territory controlled by the terrorist organization, IEDs pose a constant danger for military and civilian personnel due to the fact that they are scattered all over conflict regions and are difficult to detect. IEDs are also a threat outside the Middle East, with terrorist attacks utilizing the devices taking place in Europe, Asia, and the Americas.

    During military operations in Afghanistan between 2002 and 2011, German Armed Forces suffered 54 dead and several hundred wounded from various combat incidents. Shockingly, a dozen of those deaths and over 75 of those casualties were caused by IEDs. As member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Germany is involved in NATO counter-IED (C-IED) research with the goal developing new strategies and technology to counter the threat posed by the indiscriminate weapons. Similarly, the German Army started started its own C-IED research center to train soldiers how to safely detect and defuse the bombs. In addition to research programmes, German defense manufacturers produce a wide array of military vehicles capable of withstanding an IED attack; the most notable and accredited vehicle being the Boxer Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) manufactured by the German defense company, ARTEC GmbH. Equipped with an IED radio jammer, shockproof axles, and reinforced armour on the underside of the vehicle, the Boxer APC is the go-to vehicle for the armies of the Netherlands, Lithuania, and Germany.

    To counter the threat posed by IEDs, the first action the international community needs to take is to prevent terrorist organizations, such as Daesh, from obtaining materials used to produce the weapons. To do this, countries with companies listed in the CAR report should impose regulations that require those companies to conduct a screening process on groups trying to buy from them. Additionally, border security in the region should be strengthened to prevent the smuggling of materials to terrorist organizations. On the matter of protecting military personnel from IEDs, countries should put more money into funding C-IED research, and should adopt more technologically advanced military vehicles, like the Boxer. Furthermore, memebers of the international community should contribute more funds to the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs to help disarmament efforts. Germany expects to work with the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, our European allies, Israel, Afghanistan, and other Middle Eastern countries to create a comprehensive and effective resolution to this topic.

  • Rashadabada
    Rashadabada November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Imposed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Norway
    Rashad Abada

    Improvised Explosive Devices, also known as IEDS, remain today a crucial topic, and require immediate resolution. IEDS take responsibility for 66% of coalition casualties from 2001 to present day in Afghanistan. People residing in Afghanistan and Iraq are living their lives in critical danger due to IEDS. Norway had been victims of these specific attacks in the past. This includes the 2011 Norway attacks when a bomb was placed in the back of a van. The police found a man named Anders Breivik responsible for the bomb. The explosion killed 8, injured 197, and seriously wounding 12. Also, in April of 2017, the police found and destroyed another IED with high potential damage as well. An unknown party perpetrated this recent attack. Norway has not done much on the international level.

    Norway has received support from the European Union, NATO, and several other countries around the world in hope of never facing the terror attack in 2011 conducted by Anders Breivik. Personal friends of the Prime Minister Jens were also attacked including the stepbrother of Norway’s crown princess, Mette-Marit. One in every four Norwegians knew someone involved in the bombing showing how many people, and how important some people involved in the attack were. A report was ordered by Norway’s parliament known as the Gjørv Report as a punishment because the report concluded the attacks could have been “prevented by effective implementation of security measures that had already been approved.” Breivik prepared and concealed his intention of the terrorist attack almost ten years ahead of time. These attacks jeopardize the lives of the Norwegian citizens and the same bombings are occurring in Iraq and Afghanistan. Explosive violence leaves everyone in danger, and Norway believes it is necessary for the United Nations to detain the use of IEDS.

    Norway proposes that the Disarmament and International Security Committee fund developmental counter-IED efforts. This will strengthen military vehicles and facilities to be resistant against attacks using these devices. The more resistance toward the issue will prevent the use of the devices restricting further attacks. This will be a key effort in protecting the innocent civilians damaged by IEDS daily. The international community must take advantage of the funding in order to attempt countering IEDS. Another proposal is limiting trade from state and non-state participators of IED development to limit the amount of IEDS that are produced. This will gradually decrease the amount of attacks of IEDS by a large amount.

  • JimmyBraun
    JimmyBraun November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Imposed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    India
    Jimmy Braun

    As the state with the fifth most IED (Improvised Explosive Device) attacks in the world, the country of India believes that the recent 10% increase in Improvised Explosive Attacks should not be taken lightly by the United Nations. The materials used to create these IEDs are cheap, easy to obtain, and easy to turn into an explosive. Potassium chlorate, a cheap and highly unregulated new favorite IED ingredient among terrorist groups, is present in 60% of improvised explosives according to the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization.

    Since 2011, India has experienced 264 IED attacks, mostly a result of the Maoist communist group, an extremist political party which has injured hundreds per year by use of both imported and locally assembled IEDs. Around the world, attacks continue to grow as IED equipped terrorist groups such as ISIS and Boko Haram are able to manufacture and distribute explosives in countries with porous borders and little technical successful experience in eliminating explosives, and their means of production, as seen in several middle eastern countries. India, as a signatory state, has carried out the points of the Amended Protocol II of the CCW (Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons), voluntarily sharing information on the elimination of IEDs and their creation with both the Programme Global Shield of the World Customs Organization and the INTERPOL Chemical Anti-Smuggling Enforcement and Chemical Risk Identification and Mitigation programme. Currently, India hosts 11 foreign delegations (including high profile nations such as the United States of America, UK, and France) for IED prevention training, with 56 full time course personnel, and 125 personnel for our training capsules.

    India believes that as the largest intermediary group in the world, the responsibility for the end of the proliferation of IEDs is in the hands of the delegates of the United Nations. India believes that Amended Protocol – II of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons serves as the appropriate framework for this issue, as it lays basic ground rules for the cleanup, legality, and disciplinary measures for IEDs. However noting the need for private matters between states, we push for enhancing communication between nations for the international sharing of expertise and information to more effectively test methods of eliminating IEDs. India further believes in a resolution that restricts the sale of products containing potassium chlorate, especially in regions where producers of IEDs exist, regions like Afghanistan and Iraq. In addition, a resolution that pushes for the vigilance among nations, and pushes for nations to adopt the resolutions of the CCW as national policy.

  • Bellarose.oswalt
    Bellarose.oswalt November 15, 2017 Reply

    I.E.D. stands for improvised explosive device. These makeshift bombs are usually made with items you can find at your local grocery store, like bleach and fertilisers. With the ingredients to such a weapon so readily available, it is no wonder I.E.D. attack rates have been on the rise. In Chilé, more than two hundred explosive devices have been placed around religious buildings and banks. Only 73 devices were removed safely and without detonation. With more and more I.E.D’s being used by hate groups and terror organisations in Chilé, the makeshift bomb has an ever growing death toll.
    Chilé is not the only country effected by this homemade bomb epidemic. With the rise of the crimes and terror attacks around the world, I.E.D. attacks are becoming more common. Between 2011 and 2016, fifty seven percent of civilian death or injuries were caused by explosive devices. That percentage is way up from where it should be, zero percent. With the ever rising amount of death, innocent or not, homemade explosives a becoming a prevalent issue in counties at war.
    If limits could be placed upon how much of each common I.E.D. ingredient could be bought at time, or within a certain time period, theoretically it would be harder to mass produce such explosives. With certain precautions put into place, such as checks on bombing suspects, and monitoring of people with a criminal history homemade bombs would be harder to make and use. As a representative of the country of Chilé, a country hard hit by I.E.D. causalities, we believe it would be best to place limitations on sales of common explosive ingredients. Such limits and precautions could help to protect our people, and the people of other countries effected in this epidemic.

    • Bellarose.oswalt
      Bellarose.oswalt November 15, 2017 Reply

      Committee: DISEC
      Country: Chilé
      Delegate: Bella Oswalt
      School: Vicksburg High School

  • Donnkat
    Donnkat November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Country: Brazil
    Topic: Security Cooperation in East Asia
    Delegate: Katherine Donnelly
    School: East Grand Rapids High School

    The use of IEDs in our world today has sparked controversy and debate since they first became a reality. Many terrorist organizations and hate groups have used such devices to further spread a culture of exclusion and terror.
    The country of Brazil has seen the fateful effects of Improvised Explosive Devices too many times, even as recently as May 3, 2017. An organized group of Muslim migrants attacked a counter-organization that was protesting an Anti-Migration law that had passed. The repercussions were simple: the police arrested the attackers and the crime was registered at a local police station.
    The effect of our nation’s consequences seem to have no impact on those responsible for such attacks, and the issue is one that needs to be solved immediately. Brazil hopes to, with the help of other countries and guided by the United Nation’s principles, establish programs and resources that would limit the ability for IED use, essentially restricting civilians from receiving the resources necessary to create such devices. Additionally, the implementation of educational programs that educate citizens on the dangers of IEDs and the way to respond if an attack were to occur. Finally, Brazil hopes to urge every country of the UN to strengthen the punishments for using IEDs to potentially curtail attacks in the future.

  • VMinka
    VMinka November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    Delegate: Victoria Minka

    The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea recognizes the plights of its allies in the Middle East and understands that these countries want measures to be taken against those that do their citizens harm. One of the most impactful proponents of IEDs is the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), but an even more pressing issue is the death of citizens at the hands of U.S. soldiers who claim that they are trying to “defend” the people of Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. If the General Assembly looked more directly at the West’s involvement in the Middle East instead of violence that sprung from their presence (like ISIS), this great gathering would better be able to pull at the roots of the tragedies that have occurred. However, it would be even more of a disrespect to my commendable allies if the United States and Western powers entered their borders to help diffuse the use of IEDs in their cities. Since it would be further encroachment of their national sovereignty, I propose that Western democracies put together a fund to help prevent and creation of future IEDs in countries where they have taken part in proxy wars.
    Sausage gravy makes every breakfast better. My husband and I love biscuits and gravy. You all know I’m a total food snob. Him? Not quite as much (but I’m grooming him daily). The one thing he is a total food snob about is sausage gravy. When we go out to breakfast, he’ll order a sample of the country gravy before committing to actually ordering biscuits and gravy. I’m sure you all have experienced country sausage gravy that sucks. Its either too thick or too thin or too starchy or the sausage is nasty. The best part? Homemade sausage gravy is easy to make!
    The best biscuits and gravy require two things – sausage gravy and homemade buttermilk biscuits. Now, in the video of me making the recipe, you might notice that I used canned biscuits. For that, I apologize and I shall never live that one down. Canned biscuits should be reserved for Monkey Bread, and only Monkey Bread. Homemade sausage gravy deserves the flaky goodness of a homemade biscuit. There. Please forgive me.
    How to make sausage gravy from scratch: You can buy seasoned breakfast sausage in bulk without any casing from most meat departments, however I prefer to start with plain ground pork and make my own sage breakfast sausage. It’s the best damn sausage you’ll ever have. Make sure to use a good pan that will brown the meat nicely. I always cook my sausage gravy in my favorite Staub dutch oven. Then you gotta add some more butter because you can’t have a good gravy without the right amount of fat! Do not substitute with margarine. Once you add the flour, be sure to let it cook for several minutes before adding the milk. You want it to mix with the fat and give off an amazing aroma. I highly recommend using whole milk for a richer flavor.
    How to make biscuits and gravy: Always start with a Southern style gravy. Obviously, I think my country sausage gravy is the best, but I’ve seen tons of variations of white gravy made with bacon or a combination of sausage and bacon. You’ll want the country gravy recipe you choose to be made with flour, fat (butter and/or drippings from the meat), milk, and the right amount of seasonings. Then you really need some amazing flaky buttermilk biscuits to go with your gravy. Pairing a delicious sausage gravy with a less-than-perfect biscuit is very unsettling to me. It just doesn’t make sense. Go ahead. Drown that biscuit. Freshly ground pepper is a must.
    Now, go enjoy the best damn biscuits with country sausage gravy you’ll ever have. Consider yourself warned though – they may be so good that you’ll no longer order them when dining out because all others will fail in comparison.
    What to serve with Biscuits and Gravy: I love some kind of egg recipe to accompany my biscuits and gravy. I don’t like runny yolks running into that country sausage gravy, so I always serve them with some kind of scramble or omelet. If you’re not afraid of the carbs (hey, you’re eating biscuits and gravy, after all), a side of easy breakfast potatoes makes a nice addition, especially if you get an extra ladle full of gravy to smother those potatoes. It’s a good idea to add some color and produce to your plate as well. I make a fruit salad with a secret ingredient that pleases everyone. Or you balance out your biscuits and gravy with some wilted sautéed spinach. There are not many comforting and delicious breakfasts than homemade flaky buttermilk biscuits smothered in some perfect Country Sausage Gravy.
    Once again, North Korea will support its allies and always strive to hold countries that value a monopoly of power over human life accountable for their actions. To reduce the use of IEDs in times of war, North Korea proposes that developed nations (such as the United States, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, France, Japan) put together a funded program to assist countries at war with preventing further loss of life at the hands of these dangerous weapons. This program could be an expansion of the Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Program, which was a collaboration of the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), the Iraqi Ministry of Interior (MoI) and the European Union (EU). Along with such training, the program could also provide monetary aid packages to countries impacted using funds from the Conflict Armament Research Program.

  • Moonmar
    Moonmar November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Marisa Mooney
    School: East Grand Rapids High School

    In recent years the use of improvised explosive devices has become an increasing issue with no easy solution. These weapons can be made from easy accessible materials such as fertilizer, bleach, brake fluid, or cleaning solvents been can cause extreme damage to property as well as kill people. These weapons pose significant threats to not only the troops deployed in areas of conflict, but to the civilians who live in that area, even after fighting stops.

    As a nation, Italy has not experienced the effects of IED’s firsthand, but we are concerned by the dangers they pose across the world. We have tried to raise awareness through an EDA organised Countering Improvised Explosives Devices (CIED) Basic Search Course in early summer 2011 in Rome. Especially because Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are a significant cause of casualties for European troops on deployed operations this issue is of great importance to us.

    Italy strongly supports eradicating the use of IEDs. We believe that limiting the movement of materials that can obviously used to make weapons is necessary. We also believe that it is important that civilians in areas of conflict should be educated on how to detect IED’s and make use of NGO’s that could detonate these as well as encourage that countries provide funding to counter-IED’s.

  • 21ReddyDi
    21ReddyDi November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Senegal
    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Divya Reddy
    School: Williamston High School

    An Improvised Explosive Device also known as an IED is an improvised device made to destroy, attack, or harass using different types of sometimes lethal chemicals. IED’s are extremely dangerous, and they can be built using somewhat common materials. Between 2011 and 2013 during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflict, more than 53,000 individuals were harmed or killed by IEDs. Since these devices take so little effort to construct, the amount of terror groups and non-state actors using IEDs is rapidly growing. This poses a serious threat to innocent civilians due to the fact that IEDs are easily hidden, and they could seriously injure a unsuspecting individual. With the growing amount of IED unauthorized use and no progress on limiting the amount of IEDs, civilians around the world are in great danger. The United Nations needs to take action on a solution soon before larger disasters are caused by illegal IED use.

    Senegal does not have a huge threat from IEDs, however Senegal is very active in counter terrorism, making it a viable target. Senegal also borders many countries where IEDs are a major threat such as Mali and Guinea-Bissau. Senegal has taken many precautions to counter the threat of IEDs since it is located in the region where IEDs are most common. Senegal forces have participated in various training conferences to help prepare for IED attacks. These conferences include: INTERPOL, which helps to increase border security in West Africa and the Africa Readiness Training program which includes training in IED deduction. Senegal forces have also attended conferences such as “Flintlock” which provided counter IED training. Senegal attended a joint training with US Army Africa in July of 2017 to increase capacity and learn important tactics regarding IEDs. Senegal also provides troops and assistance to MINUSMA operation in Mali which helps to reduce civilian injury from IEDs.

    Senegal states that to counter the use of IEDs troops will need to be trained to handle IED attacks and be knowledgeable on the topic. Senegal believes that for the United Nations to combat terrorism they must hold peace keeping as their main goal. Two of the main issues that is preventing C-IED in Senegal are poverty and the amount of landmines spread throughout the country. Senegal proposes that border security be held at as a main focus in order to prevent the spread of IED use and that police forces learn to be able to adapt to the given environment. Therefore, the cooperation from surrounding counties and the correct resources are needed. Senegal continues to attend many counter terrorism training conferences to further prepare troops for IED attacks as well. Senegal has worked to increase its police number in public spaces and = police forces have formed an anti-terrorist unit to respond to terrorism and apprehend terrorists. Senegal expects to find support in countries that are also working to prevent terrorism such as the United States, and bordering countries, Mali and Mauritania.

  • Mhiestand085
    Mhiestand085 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: DiSec
    Country: Mexico
    Delegate: Madison Hiestand
    School: Mattawan High School

    The recent issues with Improvised Explosive Devices has become a crucial issue in todays conflicts that needs to be handled as soon as possible. IED’s are a threat to any country invaded by non-state military groups. These explosives endanger the lives of innocent citizens. More than 53,000 civilians were killed or injured in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2011 and 2013. About 3,043 people were killed or injured by IEDs in 1,143 incidents in Afghanistan between the beginning of April and the end of June of this year. The lives lost to Improvised Explosive Devices has come to a point that we do not have the stomach to handle. A solution needs to be approved as soon as possible. Mexico tends to side with the United States on issues resolving international conflicts. So overall, Mexico is 100% against the usage of Improvised Explosive Devices.

    With our alliance with the United, we believe the solution for detecting IEDs in everyday situations is training security screeners, employees, first responders, airport workers, and military personnel. Teaching these peoples to be alert for suspicious behavior and IED indicators is the best defense mechanism. Various bomb detection technologies need to be further developed to help the common security guard help stop the next catastrophic explosion.

    Another possible solution that I, on the behalf of the delegates of Mexico, believe would help solve the IED issue would be the United Nations creating an unbiased committee to make restrictions on IED materials. For example, this committee would have the power to deny, approve, or limit the importing or exporting of common supplies used to make IED’s in active terrorist countries. This committee would help prevent the needed materials from getting to terrorist. Thus saving the lives of many innocent civilians.

  • Gmohney099
    Gmohney099 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Gabe Mohney
    Mattawan High School
    The Federal Republic of Nigeria
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

    The implementation and utilization of Improvised Explosive Devices by terror organizations has contributed to numerous deaths worldwide, the majority civilian. Due to the widespread accessibility of production regarding IEDs and their components, a dramatic increase in civilian casualties has occurred within the last three years. Nigeria recognizes Improvised Explosive Devices have caused many deaths and injuries to members of the military and police force, prison wardens, and the civilian populace, prominent targets including the Nigeria Police Force Headquarters and UN Headquarters, both located in Abuja.

    These terrorist activities have posed a significant threat to Nigerian national unity and the issue remains a priority, especially in the north-east region. Nigeria recognizes the tremendous international support and continues to view the cooperation between the Nigeria Police Force and the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation as its greatest ally to combat these devices through the capacity building initiative, focusing on expanding counter IED measures.

    Due to the capabilities of emerging terrorist groups, such as the prominent Boko Haram, we require skilled manpower and training to effectively defend from the threat. The Counter Terrorism Unit has been created in the Nigeria Police, Army, and in the State Security Services, coupled with the inauguration of a Presidential Advisor on terrorism coordinated by the Office of the National Security Advisor, and the National Intelligence Agency’s effort in dealing with related offences. To effectively reduce and eliminate the terrorism threat, an increase in IED detection and disposal expertise would need to occur to compensate for terrorist groups’ ever changing operational methods. The implementation of an integrated data base in developing countries, such as Nigeria, to share information among security agencies and international partners, along with the licensing and regulation of components used in IEDs would also contribute to reducing the threat and combating domestic and international terrorism. Nigeria remains optimistic in reducing these threats.

  • RuleBritannia
    RuleBritannia November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Delegate: Patrick Meehan
    School: Williamston High School
    In the modern era, anything can become a weapon. Household products such as bleach can be used to create a type of bomb, an Improvised Explosive Device (IED). IEDs can be made of nearly anything, so they are found worldwide, as the preferred weapon of terrorists. The fact that they are homemade means they can come in any shape and size, making it impossible to find all of them. The use of IEDs against military targets may be horrific, but against civilian populations, especially in crowded cities, it is a catastrophe. It is the job of the UN to aid in the destruction of all those who create and use IEDs to support radical ideologies and religious fanatics.
    While Venezuela is relatively safe from terrorist activities, other nations are not. With the recent influx of refugees globally, it is impossible to determine the terrorists from the true refugees. With the spread of terrorism across the globe, particularly in first-world nations, it is up to the global community to work together to eradicate the IED and terrorist threat. Venezuela has already had success in fighting drug cartels which operate similarly to terrorists, so the fight against IEDs and terrorists will not be much of a step up.
    To aid in defeating the IED threat, Venezuela will aid in the mobilization of specialist Counter-IED units. Venezuela will also aid in the destruction of the terrorists who propagate IEDs through participation in UN police and intervention forces. Through UN maneuvering, Venezuela will support the recovery of war-torn regions to decrease the munitions available to create IEDs from, along with undermining support for terrorist organizations. Together, the world has the resources to defeat terrorism, and with it IEDs.

  • avatar image
    Kathryn Chambers November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and National Security Committee
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country: Saudi Arabia
    Delegate: Kathryn Chambers

    IEDs (improvised explosive device) pose a great threat to society, killing and harming innocent civilians. They are usually defined as a “device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract,” and are used by unofficial/unauthorized forces (Taliban, Al-Qaeda, etc.). They can be obtained/made easily and need only common materials to build, such as fertilizer, bleach, and brake fluid. The use of IEDs by terror groups is on a constant uprise, and the threat they pose on civilians and countries cause those in power to feel unsettled and search for a solution. IED’s are known to be used in regions of conflict, but the simple notion that the IED’s will no longer be in use when conflict subsides in naive. The simplicity of IED’s creates a risk is far to great to ignore and nearly impossible to clear out IEDs without unruly limitations on civilians. However, nations can regulate the distribution of the goods necessary for making IED’s, such as restricting the purchase of certain fertilizers. In 1996, The CCW also amended its second Protocol in to categorize IEDs under the name of “Other devices,” thus banning their use by the 115 nations, helping to find a solution to this crisis.

    As terrorist groups grow in Saudi Arabia, so do the number of IEDs. in 2015, Saudi suffered from 5 terrorist attacks, resulting in 189 deaths. To counteract this, The Ministry of Interior (MoI) Special Emergency Force (SEF) are working to end these bombings. Every region in Saudi Arabia has a unit of the engineering corps (Army), and Border security at checkpoints and other entry-points into the country. Saudi Arabia has its civilians and employees working relentlessly to protect Saudi from more terror attacks.

  • NSklar
    NSklar November 15, 2017 Reply

    Palestine does not support the use of improvised explosives. While Palestine acknowledges that it and some of its allies have used such devices in the past against neighboring nations, we do not use or support the use of such devices today. This committee must recognize that improvised explosive devices are often the weapon of non-national groups who do not have their own military, and are seeking to challenge the military or armed occupation of their lands. The Palestinian Authority and the Fatah Party condemn the use of such explosives, and have signed a treaty with our neighbors prohibiting the use of IEDs.
    IED’s very often are often used like land mines, which are currently banned by a previous UN Treaty. If the world community has banned landmines, should we not also ban IED’s? Regarding other dangerous explosives, the Palestinian Authority stresses that cluster bombs are far more deadly than IEDs. In raising this point, we hope that the UN Security Council will bring into compliance all member nations which are in violation of the treaty to ban cluster bombs.
    The Palestinian Authority that believes IEDs are unsafe for both the community, individual, civilians, and soldiers alike. It is our belief that during these times, with wars in Syria, Iraq, and Yemen, we must prevent the use of these both improvised explosive devices and cluster bombs in such wars. The nation of Palestine believes that the international community must deal with IEDs in a clear and forthright manner. Palestine also calls on the international community to reduce the overall violence caused by IEDs.

  • Naveedm
    Naveedm November 15, 2017 Reply

    Mahah Naveed
    Republic of Kazakhstan
    DISEC
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause a number of deaths each year. In the past year, the number of soldier casualties due to explosives increased. Also, IEDs are crude devices and may not explode when planted. This can lead to explosives being left in areas where civilians can come across them. Innocent civilians are also being injured and killed at the hands of these devices. The Republic of Kazakhstan believes that increased surveillance and regulation of the materials used to create improvised explosive devices are the best solutions to the threat posed by these devices. Also, reducing the funds available to criminal organizations may decrease the frequency of attacks using IEDs.

    Kazakhstan believes that if the materials or the funds to purchase the materials become less available to terrorist and criminal organizations, the frequency of attacks involving these weapons may decrease. If the materials commonly used in IEDs are restricted, individuals or organizations will be unable to create these weapons and attacks will be prevented, or will at least be deterred from creating them. Kazakhstan also believes that if other criminal activities that provide funds for organizations, such as smuggling or drug trafficking, are monitored and decreased, the threat of IEDs will decrease, as organizations may be unable to buy the materials necessary to create them. Also, if the materials used to create IEDs are restricted, people may turn to smuggled goods as another method of obtaining the necessary materials. If smuggling is prevented, then the materials used to create IEDs will become even more difficult to access. Decreasing access to materials used in IEDs through these methods will lower the threat posed by IEDs. Also, if surveillance on groups or individuals likely to use IEDs is increased, the threat will decrease, as we will be able to prevent the attacks from happening. We also believe that surveillance on materials used to create these devices can help prevent attacks involving IEDs, as the purchasing of large quantities of materials or of several materials that are used in IEDs can be a sign that an individual or organization intends to stage an attack using these weapons. Overall, we believe that the threat of these devices can be controlled by surveillance, restrictions on materials, and efforts to decrease crimes like smuggling.

  • ZoeteweyA
    ZoeteweyA November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Sweden
    Abigail Zoetewey
    Non-state terrorist groups have taken the IED to a new level being able to produce them on a large scale being able to kill thousands of civilians and soldiers.The kingdom of Sweden believes in a disarmament policy that puts the human beings at the center of policy. That we we should be focusing on policy that puts a minimal number of civilians at risk.
    One of the most at risk groups for these Devices to kill are children. They are more likely to pick up an odd looking object, some of these are purposely designed to look like toys, and will be injured or killed by these explosives. They can be made with household items causing them to not only be easy to make, but hard to spot causing more casualties. They kill many innocent civilians when they go off when they are brought into homes, schools, and government buildings. Preventing the deaths of children is a primary directive for Sweden to address.
    Sweden strongly condemns the use of various versions of Improvised Explosive Devices. Upholding the treaties discouraging the use of use of non-controllable mines, anti-personnel land mines, cluster munitions and the handling of explosive remnants of war. We believe that the continued universalisation of these conventions is the most effective means to counter the risks associated with the use of such weapons.
    Action on mines must extend beyond only removing war remnants to become a part of an effective toolkit for helping communities and countries recover and pursue sustainable peace. We must seek to cooperate to eliminate the use of Improvised Explosive Devices in any conflict. Sweden is willing create a dialogue discussing the creation of funds to support the monitoring of chemicals to create IEDs. We hope to include the discussion of funds for development of C-IEDs in this conversation and to prevent future casualties by aiding in the clean up of these devices.

  • Atv2301
    Atv2301 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the threat posed by IEDS
    Argentina
    Andres Tamayo

    Improvised Explosive Devices are on an all time high. Posing danger to civilians and have aided in modern terrorism more than anything else. IEDs can be fabricated using materials than can be easily acquired by civilians and are capable of destroying even military type vehicles.

    Although Argentina has not had any recent dealing with IED cause accidents it did have two dealing with them in the past: A 1992 bombing of the Israeli embassy in which 29 civilians were killed and hundreds injured, and the 1994 bombing of the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association in which 85 people were killed and hundreds more injured. Argentina recognise the danger posed by IEDs through the world because of the easily accessible materials used to construct these explosive devices. Recently there has been a proposal to update Argentina’s anti bomb laws for the first time in 10 years. The proposal includes updated investigative techniques on financing terrorism and control of bank transfers related to extremist groups; monitoring of terrorist sleeper cells, and new protocols in case of terrorist attacks.

    Although as of the 21st century Argentina has not suffered any IED cause accident, it recognizes the harm they can pose and if willing to be a Global Leader in the removals of material used to make IEDs.

  • Akuzee
    Akuzee November 15, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Switzerland
    Adam Kuzee
    City High School
    Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Switzerland believes in taking immediate and aggressive action to prevent the use of Improvised Explosive Devices, as they are instrumental in terrorist activities and a threat to a civil society.
    Improvised Explosive Devices, or IED’s, are explosives made in a rudimentary fashion but can be made cheaply using common materials and still be very effective. The concern with these devices is their widespread use amongst terror groups. These devices are used by terrorists because of their convenience, and because it is difficult for governments to trace or regulate weapons that can be made on the spot with commonplace materials. These weapons are a threat to peace in all nations.
    Fighting this problem will require international support and communication. The three most effective strategies we can employ are to regulate the materials used, prevent these devices from being used, and find ways to protect from when these attacks do happen. Although it is impossible to completely eliminate all materials used in IED’s, it is possible to regulate some of the major components without restricting civilians too heavily. Communication between nations could be of great help for sharing intelligence and the prevention of IED attacks. Using this intelligence, individual nations could take informed action to prevent specific attacks and to bring down the organizations that utilize IED’s.

  • TheAngryPirate
    TheAngryPirate November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Disec
    Topic: Countering the Threat Posed by I.E.D’s
    Country: Togo
    Delegate: Jack Nolan

    Togo has seen first hand the devastating effects these Improvised Explosive Devices can cause. They are defined as any bomb-like device used outside of military action. The IEDs cause devastation to civilian populations for they are primarily used in heavily populated places and cause unnecessary harm. Togo has not previously enacted any policies to counteract these devices, other than their illegal status.
    In the future, Togo would like to see regulations enacted in order to effectively disrupt the production of these devices. In order for these actions to be efficient, cooperation among nations, where the use of these devices is prevalent, is required. To properly rid these devices all nations need to be on the same page, and see the big picture of the catastrophic damage they cause. regulating governmental production, trade, and use of this weapon through a multilateral agreement, may not yield results. Instead, the focus should be on the capacity of governments to effectively bring together several policies for comprehensive national action. Meaning an entire, governmental action is essential for making progress. Another factor must be incorporated and that is anti-terrorism. The use of these devices is primarily done by terrorists, meaning policies must also be implemented to discourage this act.

  • Grekster
    Grekster November 16, 2017 Reply

    DISEC
    Topic Countering the Threat Posed By I.E.D.s
    Delegate Andrew Grekin

    Ladies and gentlemen of the General Assembly Disarmament and Security Committee

    The nation of Colombia is here today to talk about the use of IEDs and how we should not tolerate them. My nation has just concluded a civil war that was fought for over forty years. There was massive damage and destruction of life, much of which was caused by landmines and by a variety of other explosive weapons, in particular improvised explosive devices (IED’s.) We should recognize that IEDs are as indiscriminately destructive as land mines, which are banned by agreement of the UN anti-landmine treaty.
    The people of Colombia have suffered for forty years by a variety of guns, as well as these explosive weapons. If these people were citizens of your country and had not agreed to ban IED’s, what do you think your people would do? They would cry out for the end to the war and the use of such deadly and random devices. Colombia also hopes and believes that many other nations would agree with our nation’s views.
    IEDs are random in their explosiveness they kill more civilians than Combatants. That is not even mentioning the maiming that debilitates people. This also could make them become beggars on the streets because of them getting their legs blown off and them no longer having a job. If they also have families that the families could starve as well. The Global community should learn from recent conflicts in Iraq and Syria. Thank you for your attention to this matter. Hope we can come up with a resolution.

  • Cfraleyburgett
    Cfraleyburgett November 16, 2017 Reply

    Eli Duguid
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic:Countering the Threat Posed by Improvised Explosive Devices
    Country:Rwanda
    Since the first World War, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have been used as lethal
    weapons. As of recently, many terrorist groups around the world have used IEDs as ways to
    cause panic or disorder among citizen and military populations. The use of IEDs have caused
    tens of thousands of deaths in the past few years. Although the use of IEDs are very low in
    Rwanda, Rwanda feels that every precaution necessary should be taken in countering the use
    of IEDs. IEDs used in terrorist activities have killed many people in fellow nations of the UN and
    African Union. For this reason we feel the the United Nations needs to become involved in
    countering this devastating threat.
    Rwanda has passed many pieces of legislation that have shown how we feel against counter
    terrorism. An example of this is,Law no.45 written in 2008 which contains one hundred and five
    articles discussing how Rwanda will handle and counter terrorism domestically. This legislation
    has benefited Rwanda very much as we are not listed among the top countries of terrorist
    attacks and are known worldwide as a low terrorist threat country. There have only been
    thirteen terrorist attacks reported in Rwanda over the past five years, while neighboring country,
    Democratic Republic of Congo had 162 reported incidents of terrorist attacks in 2012 alone.
    If the United Nations makes countering the threat posed by IEDs a priority, not only Rwanda but
    many other nations heavily affected by terrorist attacks will see improvements in the terrorist
    attack threat level. The harder it is for terrorists to find easy and cheap weaponry, the harder it is
    to terrorize populations.
    Rwanda suggests that the United Nations makes the movement of goods used in Improvised
    Explosive Devices harder to attain. We also believe that the United Nations should increase the
    budget for counter-IED vehicles and military facilities. If the UN makes it harder for materials
    used in IEDs to be attained, than it will be much harder for terrorist groups to create the
    weapons without materials. If the United Nations increase the budget for Counter-IED
    efforts,many benefits could follow like, discouraging terrorism because terrorists will know that
    using their IEDs may have no effect on their target. The IED will also become ineffective if it
    cannot inflict damage upon the target that it is employed upon.
    Rwanda is a member of the United Nations, African Union, and Commonwealth of Nations. The
    main objective of each of these organizations is to ensure its citizens with peace and well being.
    Rwanda is a newer nation to many of these organizations, however we feel we can add
    knowledge and support to our fellow nations, and look forward to future discussions on more
    world issues.

  • MCA510
    MCA510 November 16, 2017 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Countering the Threat Posed by I.E.D.s
    Laos
    Malhar Amin

    While Laos has not been the target of recent terrorist attacks using I.E.D.s they are still a international problem. Laos however has been under the attack of cluster bombs from the U.S.. Many of these bombs are still lying dormant and explode when they come in contact with the people. While these bombs are not I.E.D.s it still shows what they can do in the wrong hands. If a terrorist organization was able to get their hands on a load of explosives the damage they could do would not be fixed for a very long time.

    We are deeply affected by by the use of I.E.D.s, not on us, but the countries where I.E.D. common and killing many of the innocent people who live in this area. I.E.D.s are becoming more of threat. While I.E.D. usage has slowed down since 2016 the rise of I.E.D. usage through 2012-2015 is unacceptable. More countries should be in oppose of the usage of I.E.D.s

    In effort to lessen the usage of I.E.D.s and agreement should be made following these rules. If a country is applied to this agreement medical and financial aid should be given to the country affected by the I.E.D.s. The debt from the financial aid will be repaid when the country is ready. Military aid should also be given to such countries who need help defending themselves and removing already placed I.E.D.s. If these agreements are met there may be a chance to lessen I.E.D. usage.

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