The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

Encouraging Political Participation by Women

Encouraging Political Participation by Women

Women have been given the opportunity to participate in the political process for hardly more 120 years, beginning with New Zealand granting women suffrage rights in 1893. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to take part in the government of his or her country directly, or through freely chosen representatives. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women also affirms that states should take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country. Nevertheless, women still face constraints on their ability to engage politically, either through discriminatory laws still in effect or structural social barriers placed on women by the masses. For example, Ethiopia’s population is approximately a fifty-fifty split between men and women. Yet, a woman’s average working day is believed to vary between 13 and 17 hours per day, during which she earns less than her male counterparts, and consequently women are poorer on average. Ethiopian women are also on average less educated than men, which only further exacerbates the problem. It is nearly impossible for someone working 17 hours a day to engage in any kind of political activity – even something as simple as voting in an election. Ethiopia is currently still structured socially as a patriarchal system, which keeps women in a subordinate position, and uses religion and culture as an excuse.

 

When it comes to women serving directly in government office, even the West’s record is spotty at best. After the 2016 elections in the United States, only 21 of 100 Senators, and only 84 of 435 members of the House of Representatives, were female. Only one of the nine senior leadership positions in the two houses was held by a woman – House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. Nordic countries fare better, holding an average of 41.7 percent of parliamentary seats. Rwanda actually has the best record by this metric, with fully 63.8 percent of seats in the lower house of parliament held by women. Yet it is clear that more needs to be done. Recent action by the United Nations has contributed to much-needed change in the direction of more balanced political representation. Kenyan elections in 2013 provided an increase in women legislators of more than 20 percent, aided by UN Women’s provision of training to roughly 900 female candidates running for office. UN Women also supported women’s voter registration in Pakistan for their 2013 general election, with more than 40 million women registered to their National Database and Registration Authority. While these initiatives provided positive change in equitable representation within political structures, there is much more that needs to be accomplished in this regard.

 

Women account for approximately half the world’s population, and therefore have the right to be represented accordingly. Women’s experiences and perspectives can differ substantially from men’s, and they should have the ability to make decisions that affect public policy in their favor. Women are needed in representative institutions to articulate their interests, and a more diverse political body can provide a more accurate picture of the community for which policy is written and implemented. The purpose of this committee is to build a policy that attempts to operationalize this ideal. How can we increase women’s representation in politics? What limitations are placed on only women that stop them from voting, organizing, or running for office? How do we address secondary factors, such as education, free time, and access to resources, which have so far hampered women’s participation?

  • EDerrer
    EDerrer November 13, 2017 Reply

    Lebanon- Model UN Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    In the changing world, should women be encouraged to further peruse and be encouraged to peruse positions of political power? Lebanon sees no need to encourage further political pursuit for women; not because women shouldn’t be a part of politics, but because they are a part of politics and could have been voted into the position that the people of Lebanon want women to be in. If more women were wanted in the parliament, then they would be voted in by the population. The door has been opened for women to have a role in politics, unfortunately it has had limited results.
    After granting votes for women in 1952, (19 years before women in Switzerland, one of the more progressive countries) there has only been 17 women voted into the parliament. 12 women ran for a position in the Lebanese parliament and 4 women were voted in June of 2009. The population of Lebanon is 954:1000 men to women, but currently the parliament is 124:4 men to women. The mirroring of population in the government has already been accomplished by the Lebanese government. Because Lebanon’s government is religiously based, women can run, but often do not feel obliged to do so. Women of some religions don’t feel as though they need to be in a place of power, especially not in a place of political power. With the changing of ideas on women’s rights, Lebanon sees no further steps needing to take place. If women wished to have a place of power results would be seen. Due to the lack of female representation thus far, there is only so much Lebanon can do. Lebanon is not against women in politics and we strive for modern ideas in our communities, so there is not much else Lebanon feels we must do.
    Due to the limited representation of women in government because of votes, Lebanon sees no problem needing to be addresses by the UN. This is a matter of sovereignty. Lebanon would agree with others who don’t seek change or influence from the UN. Country’s all have their own form of government, and not all are compatible to change, and none need to be changed. Also, the population doesn’t need to be mirrored in the parliament any more than it already is. If other countries want a minimum number of women in their government, they will set laws, but for the UN to intervene is a violation of sovereignty.

  • avatar image
    lily martin November 14, 2017 Reply

    For the most part, our citizens our happy with the change we have made.

  • Laurenrechner
    Laurenrechner November 14, 2017 Reply

    UN Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Australia
    Lauren Ahlburg Rechner

    As of 2017, less than one third of all parliamentarians were women in Australia. This statistic shows the extent to the lack of which women are involved in politics. From the local to the global level, women’s leadership in political positions are restricted. Because women represent approximately half of the world’s population, they should have the ability to make more decisions politically. Globally, this is a huge dilemma. Women are taught to refrain from competitive and outspoken traits, yet in politics men are applauded for their use to constructively exhibit these traits. Recently, Australia has been exposed to a new emerging culture of young women fighting for not only their own rights, but also equality for all types of people. Through this the rights that women have in politics have been brought up. Only 22.7% of women are members of parliament worldwide and four of five countries have zero women representatives in parliament.

    Women’s representation politically has always been an issue for Australia. There is a gender imbalance in Australia and this does not help the situation of women in politics. In 1902, Australia granted women the right to vote and seek election. This was stated in the Commonwealth Franchise Act of 1902, which directly stated who was entitled to vote in Australia’s federal elections. Although this was a huge victory, the payoff was delayed until much later. The first woman to be elected onto the Australian Parliament was 22 years after this law was passed: Edith Cowan. There was not much globally about women representation in Parliament until somewhat recently. In 2010, Julia Gillard was elected to be the first women Prime Minister of Australia. She re-swore into the position in 2013. This upcoming year, 2018, Sydney, Australia is hosting the “Davos” of women. The Global Summit of Women event will allow for the issues of equality to be elevated to a point where other politicians will not be able to ignore women’s rights. As for resolutions signed by Australia, there are eight. These eight resolutions focused on the need to increase women’s role in decision-making, peace, and security of women: 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013), 2122 (2013), and 2242 (2015). Together, these eight resolutions represent the ideal plan for improving the situation of women in conflict infested countries- like Australia.

    Australia encourages other countries in the global UN community to join in on the efforts to raise awareness and advocate for women’s political participation. Australia strives to make sure they stay diverse and inclusive. The UN National Committee Australia works to challenge gender stereotypes and advocated for equal access to opportunities involving politics. Australia launched the Third Action Plan of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children (2010-2022) in October of 2016. This plan focuses on prevention and early intervention strategies and keeping the perpetrators accountable for their actions. The Australian National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security 2012-2018 is also in place for ongoing support for struggling women. UN Women National Committee Australia believes that it is possible to achieve gender equality with focus, funds, and commitment from the government. We must all work to recognize this larger vision.

  • Adrienneparkss
    Adrienneparkss November 14, 2017 Reply

    November 11, 2017
    SUBMITTED TO: UN Women
    FROM: The Republic of Cuba
    SUBJECT: Encouraging Political Participation by Women

    All over the world there are women who are not given a voice, not given the opportunity to use their voice, or just do not want to use their voice. Cuba believes that, as a committee, we need to understand what is stopping women from participating as voters and or as candidates. This is an important issue because when it comes to political participation it is important to allow different demographics to have a voice in politics.

    Cuba is ranked third in the world when it comes to political participation by women, as 49% of our congress is made up of women. We believe that political participation by all is important to the wellbeing of our country, and that encouraging everyone to participate can lead to new and valuable ideas that we did not have before. We find it imperative that everyone has equal opportunities to use their voice.

    With this in mind, there are many questions for the committee to answer. What is stopping women from participating in politics? How can we encourage women to gain the skills that are necessary to participate and contribute to politics?

    There are many aspects of this topic that are imperative and must be included in the resolution that is passed in order for it to be comprehensive. One thing that Cuba believes needs to be addressed is the elimination of discriminatory clauses in constitutions. We also need to push for all countries in the United Nations to ratify the 1979 convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. These two things together can help end discrimination against women altogether, which in turn can help make women more comfortable, and able, to participate in politics. Cuba also believes that education women on politics and the political process will help encourage political participation. How this will happen requires further debate and discussion in the committee, but these three basic criteria must be present in a successful resolution.

    This committee is providing a way for us to improve our political equality, and our political systems altogether. By encouraging political participation by all, we are opening our discussions to new viewpoints that we are not currently receiving. We are looking forward to figuring out how to best encourage political participation by women, and hope that it is something that helps with the political process in Cuba, and everywhere else. The delegation of Cuba looks forward to discussing how to achieve these things with the other countries in this committee, and reaching a positive and productive solution.

  • Isabellepopp
    Isabellepopp November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Country: France
    Topic: Participation of Women
    France believes that both men and women should have equal human rights and opportunities to participate in politics. We as a country acknowledge that currently both men and women do not have an even playing field, but are making strides in legalizing legislation that will create equal opportunities for men and women.
    In 2014, a gender equality bill was put into place that will improve the wages of women that are not equal to men that work the same positions and provide equal representation in politics for men and women. It is acknowledged that on average women make about twenty-five percent less than the males and only constitute for about twenty-five percent of the Assembly and Senate and three percent of chief executives. This bill was passed by the French government in an effort to increase the number of women working in politics and increase their human rights.
    France has contributed to resolutions at the UN Security Council’s Women, Peace and Security Agenda. These resolutions have and do assert the importance of the participation of women, one of which France collaborated with the Netherlands on in a resolution in the UN General Assembly to end all violence against women, as well as, unfair treatments. In 2009, France proposed the implementation of a new mechanism on laws and practices that discriminate against women at the Human Rights Council to supplement existing mechanisms. Women’s rights have been a priority in the progressive development of France. France fully supports bills to further the rights of women in politics and will work with any country who is willing to promote the rights of women and participation of women in politics.

  • Marlena14655
    Marlena14655 November 14, 2017 Reply

    UN Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    India
    Marlena Gray

    The lack of participation of women in politics is deeply frightening. The world has been a male dominated society, and United Nations for Women fight everyday for equality among the sexes, trying to narrow the social, economic, and political rights gap. UN Women works with elected officials to educate them on their rights, so they can effectively influence justice and public services, and supports these bodies by providing expert advice, information and policy recommendations on gender equality issues, often through reports of the UN Secretary-General, and by supporting Member States in all aspects of their work, including in negotiation of resolutions. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights helps to give women the rights they deserve. The ratio of men to women in the world is 101 males to 100 females. The statistic being almost equal, yet only 22.8% of all national parliamentarians were women as of June 2016. With the help from United Nations Women there has been a slow increase from 11.3 % in 1995. The world is coming to a time of equality, and rights for all; India believes that the topic of encouraging political participation by women is very important in narrowing the political gap between men and women.

    “India has ranked in top 20 countries worldwide for many years, with 9th best in 2013 – a score reflecting more women’s participation in India’s political process than Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, France and United Kingdom” (Chandrashekhar 76). The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia. With a decline in their status from the ancient to medieval times, to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been eventful. Women were substantially involved in the Indian independence movement in the early 20th century and advocated for independence from Britain. Independence brought gender equality in the form of constitutional rights, but historically women’s political participation has remained low, due to the threats of violence, discrimination, illiteracy, and overcoming barriers to participation. In modern India, women have held high offices including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Leader of the Opposition, Union Ministers, Chief Ministers and Governors. However, “In 2012, India had a minimal percentage of 10.9% women elected representatives in the national parliament, which is, but relatively higher than Hungary (8.8%), Brazil (9.6%), China (9.1%), and Malaysia (9.8%),” (Women’s Political Participation in India, Wikipedia). To support women and their fight for equality, in 1994 India established quotas in constitutional amendments, 73rd and 74th, to reserve 33% of seats in local governments for women. After the establishment of women’s reservations, political participation went from 4-5% to 25-40% among women, and gave millions of women the opportunity to serve as leaders in local government. India believes, ”When Governments report women’s issues in International treaties, it not only helps to increase their accountability but also makes an impact on the lives of women,” (UN Women’s Office for India, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka). In India, the gap between men and women voters has narrowed over time with a difference of 16.7% in 1962 to 4.4% in 2009. In Beijing, China, The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women unanimously adopted the “Women in Power and Decision-making Diagnosis”, a plan for action.

    India supports women in their endeavor to fight for political equality, and partners with them to make the sexes equal. India believes all countries should immediately support research and policies that advocate to address legal and political impediments to women’s political participation. Trainings, coalitions and lobbying, should be available, so that women representatives transform and implement policies, in favor of women’s rights.
    Works Cited
    “Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995.” United Nations, United Nations, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/decision.htm.

    M.Swarnalatha, MVKSrivani M.V.KSrivasavi. “Women In Politics -Challenges To Overcome Barriers.” Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, http://www.gjms.co.in/index.php/gjms2016/article/view/1777.

    OHCHR | Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CEDAW.aspx.

    “UN Women’s Office for India, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka.” UN Women | Asia and the Pacific, asiapacific.unwomen.org/en/countries/india.

    “Women’s Political Participation in India.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Nov. 2017, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_political_participation_in_India.

  • Royzieglerh70
    Royzieglerh70 November 14, 2017 Reply

    November 14, 2017
    SUBMITTED TO: UN Women
    FROM: Namibia
    SUBJECT: Encouraging Political Participation By Women

    The country of Namibia sees the political participation of women as a crucial priority in its sustainable development. As a representative democracy, Namibia recognizes the importance of women in shaping a just government, and has taken many steps to encourage political action by women since its self determination in 1990. The most prominent action is Namibia’s Zebra Policy, which aims at occupying half of the governing body’s parliament seats with women. With that said, the inclusion of women in politics serves as a focal point in creating a strong, sustainable Namibia.

    Namibia fully recognizes the widespread progress that needs to be made involving women in politics both domestically and internationally. 44.7% of Namibian parliamentary seats are held by women, nearly reaching the goal of 50/50 representation illustrated in the Zebra Policy. With that said, a top priority of Namibia is to assure that women have the opportunity to hold public office worldwide without discrimination. Additionally, Namibia recognizes the importance of respecting the long standing cultural practices that impact gender equality. The country believes that respect for these practices will help create a stable foundation of growth for all. With that said, Namibia is immensely devoted to working toward total gender equality, and equal representation of women and men in government is crucial to accomplishing this.

    Namibia wishes to know how this committee will handle the often conflicting views of gender and cultural practices in both the developing and developed world. Additionally, Namibia believes that the committee should consider the cultural, religious, and/or patriarchal implications that oftentimes prevent women from advancing in modern society. Furthermore, Namibia feels the committee should consider the ways in which women can be well represented in all government processes rather than only the “womanly” sectors.

    Namibia will feel satisfied with solutions to this conflict when the resounding cultural effects of change are addressed. With its large tribal population, Namibia emphasizes the importance of respect in implementing change to a culture’s social order. A resolution must include an action plan for how culture and government can coexist as a country’s social and political system changes. Namibia also feels that women of all ages should be educated to advance participation through initiative programs and education, and this must be a key component of any well thought resolution.

    Namibia’s Vision 2030 action plan is one of many relevant documents that guides its policy. In terms of gender roles in politics, this document adopts a strategy to “implement all relevant policies and providing the appropriate setting to give input on law reform proposals.” (Chapter 4, Section 1.3) Namibia also recognizes its own National Gender Policy, which poses goals to “educate women on the importance of voting and encourage their participation in election processes, and facilitate an environment for women in decision-making positions.” Namibia also fully recognizes the UN Security Council Resolution 1325, which encourages all women, especially in the developing world, to execute their right to participate in decision making processes at all levels.

    In short, Namibia is fully supportive of enhanced political participation by women and looks forward to collaborating with the international community to better the representation of women in government. Namibia is very dedicated to advancing its goals, and equal rights and representation is no exception. The priorities outlined are formed with the intention of sustaining development both internationally and domestically, and Namibia strives to meet these goals with its people’s best interest in mind. With that said, Namibia will be guided by equality and progress in committee and is fully willing to work with countries who value women in government as it does.

  • Joliefoor
    Joliefoor November 14, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation By Women
    Country: The People’s Republic of China
    Delegate: Jolie Foor

    China recognizes that national governments have the primary responsibility to protect the rights and interests of women, and the international community should assist in these efforts. The international community should promote socioeconomic development to enhance the status of women, which will help develop and empower to increase positive contributions to society. The promotion of gender equality shows the progress of people and is closely related to world development. Currently, women have a limited say in the decisions that affect them. Measures need to be taken to open leadership positions to women participation.

    One of the main pressures women face in China today is balancing work and life. China has one of the highest labour force participation rates for women in the world. However, measures to make it easier to have children and also work are lacking. Childcare is extremely expensive, which makes it difficult for working mothers. With only 98 days of mandatory maternity leave, and almost no paternity leave allowed, which forces women to choose careers that aren’t as demanding, as women are expected to raise the children in a family. The People’s Republic of China is willing to work with countries who want to focus on supporting women with families, encouraging them to continue to pursue a career.

    China’s UN Women work closely with the All-China Women’s Federation to help increase women’s political participation, with a focus on rural women. By providing training to increase women’s decision making, and working with local and national leaders to set in place policies, this will help encourage political participation. Overall, gender equality has improved drastically since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949. In China, girls and boys have, in most areas, equal access to education, which is the foundation for gender equality and job preparation. However, in rural areas, progress is more limited than in cities. China is willing to work with countries who have plans to provide resources to women in rural areas to help educate populations. This, in turn, will help inspire future generations of women and increase the number of females in the workforce.

    China understands that legislation and governance in countries needs to include more women’s voices and experiences. Without women, legislation will perpetuate gender inequality, especially when it comes to a country’s national budget. Women want, and need, to make decisions that will impact their families, communities, and countries. China looks forward to developing solutions to support for working women.

  • avatar image
    Veronica Gilbert November 14, 2017 Reply

    Country: Sweden
    Topic Area:Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Delegate: Veronica Gilbert

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to take part in the government of his or her country directly, or through freely chosen representatives. This basic principle however can be misinterpreted depending upon what nation you are born in. It is imperative for the Women of UN to discuss recruiting more women into political office and expanding the number of women that are interested in political campaigns. Along with creating equality for all genders that want to run for office because with women more women in politics there is a more diversified view that would elevate the world into a different more inclusive environment. As such, women must be afforded the same opportunities as men to engage in public office along with the same educational and salary as their male counterparts.

    Since 1574 Sweden has been actively striving in equality, taking a step in allowing and encouraging all sex children to receive primary education, but this is just one of the multitude of things that Sweden has done to help increase women’s sphere of influence. 1718-1772 the women’s suffrage movement took place where women gained the right to vote. All of this led up to equal salary pay in 1948. As can be told from all of this Sweden is at the forefront for women equality,and believes it is imperative for success of the world to gain equal rights for all women not only in the political sphere of influence, but also in other aspects.

    Sweden would like to create more opportunities for women to get involved in politics. One way that Sweden recommends more opportunities for women participation is by starting small and at the source for most countries by mandating that local government must be included into the decision making processes and be able to run for leadership roles within their country without receiving backlash for peers.

  • Rose5236
    Rose5236 November 15, 2017 Reply

    11/5/17
    SUBMITTED TO: UN Women
    FROM: Botswana
    SUBJECT: Encouraging Political Participation by Women

    As of right now, women aren’t usually as involved in politics as men are. Currently, in 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 percent of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber. In addition to this, a current goal of the UN is to ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic and public life. As well as this, the African Union is also trying to gain women’s participation in politics. Gaining women participation in politics can be done through a number of ways.

    Currently, Botswana’s majority of voters are women. Women play an active role in politics in the nation of Botswana. They go out and conduct door to door campaigns and recruit members for their parties. Botswana has not signed the SADC Gender Protocol Barometer because the timeframes are unrealistic, so the delegation of Botswana hopes that we can fix the timelines for the outcome. Botswana is one of three countries in Africa that women occupy more than 30 percent of women on Permanent Secretaries.

    How do we get more women involved with politics? Well, one option is affirmative action. By having affirmative action for women who enter politics, we could possibly have more women joining politics. Another action we could take is educating the citizens of a way to have women increase their role in politics. Informing women that they have a chance to possibly make a change in their nations is a good way to get women involved in politics.

    In conclusion, Botswana hopes by using a combination of affirmative action and education of women to make them more informed on political matters, the world as a whole can gain the participation of more women in politics. As well as this, changing previous policies to better suit females would be optimal. The delegation of Botswana hopes to make the world as a whole more inclusive to having women being involved in politics, rather than having the majority of roles be filled by men.

  • 20ellefsem
    20ellefsem November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Portugal
    Committee: UN Women
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Women´s participation in politics
    Delegate: Emma Ellefson-Frank

    Even as more countries strive for gender equality, women all around the world face discrimination which can prohibit them from achieving all of their professional goals. In the case of politics, women are prevented from participation in multiple ways. One of these is the use of religion and tradition as an excuse to keep women out of government roles. Another way that women are kept from pursuing a career in politics is by having lower wages and long work days that makes participating in even something as small as voting in an election difficult. Since women make up approximately 50% of every nation’s population, this unequal representation should be of utmost importance to all nations.
    Ever since Portugal gave women the right to vote in 1976, Portugal has strived for gender equality in all aspects of life. Portugal also realizes that in order to do the best for all of our citizens it is vital that members of 50% of the population be heard and are able to make important changes in legislature. In terms of women’s participation in government, Portugal passed the Parity Act in 2006 which states that 33% of local, legislative, and European parliament should be made up of women. Since that time women’s role in government has increased on an average of 10%. Portugal has realized that this closer to equal gender representation has allowed for a more balanced democracy. Looking forward, Portugal would be interested in being even more proactive towards gender equality.
    In order to be as efficient as possible, Portugal sees the need to be precise and quick with actions concerning women’s participation in government. To begin with Portugal believes that all nations should follow EU standards and adopt the Parity Act which would pave the road for further development. Additionally before improvements can be made in politics, it is vital that women are already considered equal in the rest of society. Therefore a gender equality law similar to those passed in Norway and Sweden in 2013 should be passed giving all people regardless of gender equal pay and protection under the law. After these two steps have been taken, Portugal would look favorably upon legislation requiring 50% of government being held by female participants. This would insure a better and more balanced society for all citizens in all nations. Portugal expects the support of all nation in the EU as well as any and all nations with goals of full and complete gender equality.

  • 20ellefsem
    20ellefsem November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Portugal
    Committee: UN Women
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Women´s participation in politics
    Delegate: Emma Ellefson-Frank

    Even as more countries strive for gender equality, women all around the world face discrimination which can prohibit them from achieving all of their professional goals. In the case of politics, women are prevented from participation in multiple ways. One of these is the use of religion and tradition as an excuse to keep women out of government roles. Another way that women are kept from pursuing a career in politics is by having lower wages and long work days that makes participating in even something as small as voting in an election difficult. Since women make up approximately 50% of every nation’s population, this unequal representation should be of utmost importance to all nations.
    Ever since Portugal gave women the right to vote in 1976, Portugal has strived for gender equality in all aspects of life. Portugal also realizes that in order to do the best for all of our citizens it is vital that members of 50% of the population be heard and are able to make important changes in legislature. In terms of women’s participation in government, Portugal passed the Parity Act in 2006 which states that 33% of local, legislative, and European parliament should be made up of women. Since that time women’s role in government has increased on an average of 10%. Portugal has realized that this closer to equal gender representation has allowed for a more balanced democracy. Looking forward, Portugal would be interested in being even more proactive towards gender equality.

    In order to be as efficient as possible, Portugal sees the need to be precise and quick with actions concerning women’s participation in government. To begin with Portugal believes that all nations should follow EU standards and adopt the Parity Act which would pave the road for further development. Additionally before improvements can be made in politics, it is vital that women are already considered equal in the rest of society. Therefore a gender equality law similar to those passed in Norway and Sweden in 2013 should be passed giving all people regardless of gender equal pay and protection under the law. After these two steps have been taken, Portugal would look favorably upon legislation requiring 50% of government being held by female participants. This would insure a better and more balanced society for all citizens in all nations. Portugal expects the support of all nation in the EU as well as any and all nations with goals of full and complete gender equality.

  • Jen.bell18
    Jen.bell18 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Country: Belgium
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation of Women

    Fundamental changes in domestic and foreign policy are necessary in order to provide women access to the same fundamental rights as their male counterparts. Policy needs to address and eliminate the socio-economic discrimination faced by women in regards to their role in the workplace and their access to the fair wages, reproductive freedoms, and fundamental human rights they are often denied. Policy makers need to be aware of these issues and the discrimination facing women, and be willing to implement transversal policies that will ensure gender equality.
    The lack of women in elected positions and governing bodies worldwide inhibits the awareness and progress that would ensure these changes in policy. Women are not equally represented in government because of existing societal norms and policies that limit their access to the resources, education, and support necessary to enter into government positions.
    Belgium has worked to implement policies that would criminalize sexism within the law and promote gender equality through education. These measures seek to eliminate the discrimination that would obstruct women’s paths to pursue any career within or without government. Initiatives and policies have been implemented in Belgium to eliminate gender discrimination and the wage gap, provide women access to health care, and criminalize all forms of domestic violence. Internationally, Belgium has worked with UN Women to achieve the standards outlined by resolutions, as well as provide funding for the organization, and help to implement gender mainstreaming policies.
    Belgium affirms and encourages the use of gender mainstreaming within local and international government as a means to ensure gender equality and encourage the political participation of women. As defined by the UN Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, gender mainstreaming ensures, “that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities – policy development, research, advocacy/ dialogue, legislation, resource allocation, and planning, implementation and monitoring of programmes and projects.” Gender mainstreaming will serve as a means to raise awareness for gender inequality and improve the rights of women in every facet of society. Women need to have access to education, resources, equal pay, and societal support in order to be equally represented in government. Gender mainstreaming in concordance with initiatives to change national and international policies to support the rights of women and criminalize sexism will ensure gender equality. Women will have a navigable path to government when they have attained equal rights, and those currently in government can enable these changes.

    Works Cited
    “Discriminatie.” Instituut Voor De Gelijkheid Van Vrouwen En Mannen, igvm-iefh.belgium.be/nl/activiteiten/discriminatie.
    “EXPERTS PRAISE BELGIUM’S INNOVATIVE PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY, URGE COORDINATION OF ACTION BY COUNTRY’S FEDERATED BODIES | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases.” United Nations, United Nations, http://www.un.org/press/en/2002/wom1344.doc.htm.
    “Major Resolutions.” UN Women, http://www.unwomen.org/en/how-we-work/intergovernmental-support/major-resolutions.
    “OSAGI Gender Mainstreaming.” United Nations, United Nations, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/gendermainstreaming.htm.
    “United Nations Official Document.” United Nations, United Nations, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/66/130.

  • 18ClaypoRy
    18ClaypoRy November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Canada
    Committee: UN Women
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Delegate: Ryan Claypool

    In the last century almost every country has seen a huge increase in women participating in both politics and government. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was ratified in 1948, promoted the participation of everyone taking part in his/her government, or electing representatives in their government at every level. Barriers are in place to help prevent countries from allowing discrimination against women and setting standards on how women should play a role in certain societies. It is still very common for certain countries to make women’s standards to work long excruciating hours, in poor working conditions, and settle for low wages. People don’t always realize that the leaders setting these standards for women are still mostly men. Showing women have not been able to set an example or standards for themselves in taking part in politics or government in their countries.

    Canada’s 42nd Parliament currently has 88 women elected in the 338-member House of Commons, the most it has ever had. Comparison to the United States, where only 84 women currently serve in the U.S. House of Representative a body of 435 members. The world looks at Rwanda as the figure for women participation in government. ‘Equal Voice’, a political organization created in 2001 has made their agenda from 2013-2018 to promote women to run for public office in both provincial or territorial legislatures. Equal Voice also helps raise money and awareness, even brings people both sides of the political spectrum together. While at the same time advocating for democracy. The organization has some success, but Canada still ranks 46th on women’s political representation. Canada continues to push women to pursue a career in politics and government in hopes to hear.

    Canada believes women’s leadership is the best tool to help promote political participation. Sixty-three percent of Rwanda’s parliament is held by women who are elected indirectly but appointed by party. Rwanda’s president – Paul Kagame promoted public health and gender equality in his country. Canada has helped promote political participation by women within our own country. Germany, whose Chancellor Angela Merkell, has held her office since 2005, can use their office and influence to demonstrate that working across party lines can help bring unification to many nations and their governments. If the UN also tackled issues that affect women such as sexual violence and women participation during transition of government, the committee would see results of women standing up for themselves in discussions and issues that directly affect them. That is why Canada would propose a resolution stating that the committee should be troubled by the slow decrease in political participation in both the UN and their countries, while the UN has not fully put its effort in helping women in others area such as reproductive rights and gender equality. A proposed resolution would help advocate for women in power to influence societies to promote women in politics and prevent countries from allowing them to seek public office. The resolution would target the Saharan African nations as well as China and Middle Eastern countries that have clouded women from the idea that they should have a voice in their government. Stating the committee is alarmed by the lack of women participating in their government, recommending that members of the United Nations shall spend the necessary amount of money and resources to create organizations with the intent to influence and raise money for women who seek public office in their countries.

  • Elijonlogan
    Elijonlogan November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Reproductive Health
    Country: Pakistan
    Elijah Logan

    Abortion rights and reproductive health rights have been a controversial topic in the modern world. Some governments have provided near completely unrestricted access to contraception and abortion, while others outlaw and castigate abortion. Over 56 million abortion occur each year, and 21.6 million of these are unsafe abortions. Every year, 47,000 women die from abortion-related complications, mostly in developing countries. 36% of women report not using contraception, and many report unintended pregnancies. Many women report unmet needs for family planning and reproductive services, and less than ½ of needs are met in 54 countries, and less than ¾ of needs are met in 74 countries.
    Pakistan has an above average Maternal Mortality Ratio of 340 per 100,000, and pregnant women often have complications before, during and after pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, around 35% of Pakistani women use contraception, an exceptionally low number. Many Muslims in Pakistan believe that their religion prohibits use of contraception.”Family planning is wrong and un-Islamic if it is practiced routinely,” Mohammad Zakaria, an expert Islamic scholar from one of the oldest Islamic schools, says. “If it permanently stops a woman from becoming pregnant, it is harmful and illegal.” But Islamic scholars have determined that abortion is permissible in the country up to 120 days of pregnancy, which is clearly reflected in the numbers: 54% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion.
    The Islamic Republic of Pakistan wishes to improve safety for pregnant women, protect the life of the unborn, and reduce population growth in Pakistan by taking a nuanced approach to abortion and contraception to ensure reproductive rights while preventing innocent children from being exposed to unsavory procedures like abortion.

  • Elijonlogan
    Elijonlogan November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Country: Pakistan
    Elijah Logan

    Worldwide, women are underrepresented in governments, local and national, and women are discouraged from voting. Women have only recently gained the right to vote in Saudi Arabia, in 2015, and have low turnout because of voter intimidation. But we have seen improvement in women’s representation, like the historic majority women governments of Rwanda and Bolivia, and near equal representation in Iceland, Sweden and Cuba. But much work must be done, as women have near no representation in Oman, Qatar, Nauru, Thailand, among various other countries. These countries often have laws inhibiting political participation, as well as various social factors that prevent or scare women from voting and running for office. Social condemnation for political participation is a vital problem in various countries, even in countries we see as equal.
    Pakistan granted women suffrage in 1947, and thus women have been voting in every election since. Benazir Bhutto was elected prime minister in 1988, and became the first woman prime minister of a Muslim country. Women now make up around 21% of elected positions in Pakistan, an improvement from the past. Women are guaranteed four seats in the Senate and sixty seats in the Assemblies. Women in Pakistan are often intimidated and threatened when they try to vote, and it has gotten so dangerous that the military was deployed to protect woman voters. Fliers are passed around insisting that it is “un-Islamic” for women to be voting and participating in governmental activities. Women voters are often socially ostracized and being pariahs of a town, especially in rural areas. Constant violence against women in society, along with systemic oppression of women disincentivizes women from voting.
    Pakistan affirms women’s right to vote, and encourages governments to protect woman voters. Pakistan proposes that other countries introduce women-only seats to ensure that women are represented in government, or that governments create quotas for party lists to ensure that women are fairly represented within each political party. Encouraging political participation by women in a fair and representative manner is of vital importance to the Women’s Council. It is vital that young girls have women in power they can look up to and view as role models, and equally important that women’s voices are heard in our political processes.

  • Lewiash
    Lewiash November 15, 2017 Reply

    Brazil is in dire need of rejuvenation of their infrastructure. This doesn’t mean repaving roads and pipelines, this rejuvenation should come in the form of gender equality leading to a greater amount of women in the political sphere. The number of female candidates has grown in the last elections, from 935 in 2010 to 1755 in 2014, and a number of these elections led to a female candidate emerging victoriously. With the leadership shown by Brazil’s first female president, Dilma Roussef, gender-based policies such as health care before and during pregnancy and at birth, as well as child care and education have been implemented. Women, however, are still a minority in every political body, with an astounding 9.9% of congresspersons being female. Brazil believes that the most effective way to combat this is to first promote gender equality, which will, in turn, spur social changes.
    Brazil has made tremendous bounds in the equality of education, with illiteracy rates for women aged fifteen years and older fell from 20.3 percent in 1991 to 9.8 percent in 2008 and, in the workforce, have even surpassed the average amount of schooling that their male counterparts have received. Our nation has also decreased the income gap, achieving the lowest disparity in the last fifty years. Despite these improvements, women with twelve or more years of education still earn merely 58 percent of men’s salaries. This increase of women in the workforce can create social change with a simple process proposed by Pierre-Richard Agénor and Otaviano Canuto of the World Bank. The process is as follows: when more educated women are in the workforce, they bring in more capital, have an amplified say in family affairs and have a greater inclination to invest in their children which instills these feminist ideals in the younger generations. According to Agénor and Canuto, the lack of women in the political sphere is directly caused by the inability of the franchise to reject deeply-rooted social norms and vote for female candidates. Therefore, once younger generations dispel these antiquated, misogynistic beliefs, those aforementioned 1755 female candidates will have a greater chance of winning elections.
    This success is not completely accredited to social change, but to legislation requiring that a minimum of a coalition or party’s candidates are 20% female. Additionally, this legislation has gained the support of the people. According to a 2013 survey made by IBOPE and Patrícia Galvão Institute, 74% of interviewees agree that democracy’s sustenance depends on female participation in power positions, and 78% believe that half the candidates in the list presented by parties should be female. With this unbeatable combination of successful legislation and changing views on women’s role in society, Brazil is eager to set a positive example and aid other nations in strengthening the prominence of women in the political sphere.

    Works Cited:
    http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTPREMNET/Resources/EP109.pdf
    https://www.gwi-boell.de/en/2015/05/21/brazil-womens-participation-elections

    • Lewiash
      Lewiash November 15, 2017 Reply

      Committee: UN Women
      Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
      Country: Brazil
      Delegate: Asha Lewis

  • MFS1228
    MFS1228 November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nation Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Turkey
    Monica Stasiulewicz

    Throughout history, women have experienced suppression. Culture and tradition have cut down the status of women for centuries. Even now, women in the United States, a large country itself,  deals with unequal pay in the workforce, and even after their week, they must go home to complete another job, being a mother. New Zealand was the first country to grant the women’s suffrage in 1893, and many countries followed after that. Unfortunately, there are still some countries still subjugate women, wanting them to rather stay in the house as society believed the men were the only ones who could protect and take care of the family. However many women from countries are still fighting for their basic rights, and trying to break from their traditional roles.

    Turkey has given women equal rights in divorce and child custody that they have been exercising for the last sixty-seven years. The government has been trying to include more women in political positions. Reasons women may not feel the need to participate in politics could include that they are negatively sexually and/or politically labeled, and they may have to drop out of political activism. However according to the Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations, “The General Assembly this year completed two Special Sessions successfully: one focusing on the advancement of the rights of women and the other on social development. With this achievement the United Nations and its members have once again displayed their commitment to further the goals set at the 1995 Beijing and Copenhagen Conferences.” In fact “the enrollment rate of boys and girls in elementary education is equal, almost one third of adult Turkish women are still illiterate”.Turkey has also made commitments to eliminate discrimination against women and remove barriers for equal participation, including in education, for a higher possibility of literacy rates.

    Turkey has made strides in women’s political participation, and plan on upholding the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. With time, steps can be taken, for human rights. With the difficulty of the culture and traditions of the area, small steps must first be taken and matters must be reviewed conscientiously. However, “Turkey, [has], signed both the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Thus, Turkey has taken yet another step towards becoming signatory to the whole set of international instruments dealing with safeguarding and promoting human rights.”

  • avatar image
    Molly November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Venezuela
    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation By Women
    Delegate: Molly Bowling
    School: Williamston High School

    Encouraging women to participate in politics is a pressing issue in today’s world. Even though women have been allowed to participate in political activities for more than 120 years, they still face hardships in their ability to engage in political affairs and leadership opportunities, either through discriminatory laws or social barriers placed on women by their culture. Females have been placed under the stereotype where they are expected to remain in the home, because of gender discrimination that has been around for hundreds of years. This is a key factor in preventing them from particiaptating in politics in their country. Women account for approximately half the world’s population, and therefore have the right to be represented accordingly. The United Nations must determine what actions can and cannot be taken to encourage political paticipation by women.

    Venezuelan women are slowly becoming more active in politics. Since President Hugo Chávez came to office in 1998, ordinary women from barrios or shantytowns are becoming engaged in grassroot politics. The Venezuelan National Constituent Assembly (ANC) reaffirms the importance of gender rights and equality, Venezuela is feminist because they confront the global revolution of gender equality. Venezuela ranks 101 in the world in gender equality, and 17 percent of the seats in parliament are held by women.

    Venezuela encourages other countries to follow in their footsteps. They are headed in the right direction with women holding seats in their government, and more than fifty percent of women have an education in their country. The Venezuelan government is in the process of constructing a new developmental model that recognizes equality between males and females. This is a momentous revolutionary act and is not covered by any other constitution in the world. A state policy in Venezuela is gender equality, the application of the gender perspective as well as the promotion of female empowerment are key components of public policy. If other countries follow Venezuela’s policies it will open up more opportunities in their politics. Research shows that female leaders typically have more empathy and compassion, and they have more of an open mind when it comes to negotiation-this is not true for all women, everyone has a different leadership style. Also, in developing nations having women at the table impacts how policy resources are spent.

  • Gcmclean
    Gcmclean November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Women Committee
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Norway
    Grace McLean

    The current political participation by women and the negative attitude towards leadership by women in all states and provinces are important issues that require resolution by the United Nations. Historically, participation of women in all aspects of politics, including voting, leadership, rights and freedoms, expression etc., has been disfavored if not completely outlawed. Most European countries have 25 percent or less of parliamentarians that are women, and according to UN Women.org, there are 38 states globally in which women account for less than 10 percent of parliamentarians. This can be detrimental to developing countries that also do not permit education for women. Areas where political participation by women is encouraged have a higher rate of educated women who have completed at least primary school. Huffpost Canada also estimates that “based on International Labour Organization (ILO) data, Aguirre and others (2012)… 865 million women worldwide have the potential to contribute more fully to their national economies” (Brother). Norway is progressive in the amount of women that participate and has equal educational opportunities and rates of success for both boys and girls. Although in recent years the amount of political participation has significantly increased, there is still much to be done in terms of getting full equality and maximum participation of women in politics across the board. In order to achieve this goal, the United Nations must educate and inform women in all countries.

    Women in Norway are encouraged and often do participate widely in politics. Boys and girls are offered equal opportunities in education and employment, making them one of the most progressive countries in terms of gender equality. In recent years, gender quotas have been enacted in hopes of achieving high political participation and as a push for gender equality. Currently 40% of Norway’s parliament is comprised of women. This can be credited to the fact that men and women are formally on equal footing, meaning the same laws protect them and they have the same access to education, health and social services. The amount of women in comparison to men in the workforce can also be linked to higher economic performance in Norway. UN Women’s website states that “a direct causal relationship between the presence of women in municipal councils and childcare coverage was found” in Norway. (UN Women Facts and Figures) UN Women and Innovation Norway recently signed the first Memorandum of Understanding, which will enhance approaches to gender inequality. These efforts and others have further ameliorated the progress towards achieving full gender equality in politics and everyday lives of the women in Norway.

    Although there is general formal equality in Norway, there is still a fight for complete equality in terms of gaining equal pay and equal representation in municipal politics. To fulfill this goal of complete and total gender equality, UN Women must ensure that there is thorough education and information available to women in all countries in order to encourage them to vote and become involved in government. To do this, UN Women might send representatives to kickstart an education program in developing countries or find a way to expose female citizens to their realities in a widespread fashion. In order to improve situations in developing countries or those where political participation by women is outlawed, UN Women should hold governments of those countries accountable and propose resolutions that give women more access to education. Not only is it important to educate women who are already of age to be involved in government, but it is vital to educate the youth that will replace these women in time. By educating more young women about government and their ability to participate, there will be more women that are qualified and educated on political topics. Increasing awareness about gender equality-especially in developing countries-will ensure that in time women will have an equal opportunity as men in the world of politics and become influential in all political spheres.

    Works Cited
    Brother, Mona Elisabeth. “Gender Equality In Norway: Progressive Policies And Major Challenges.” HuffPost Canada, HuffPost, 5 May 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/mona-elisabeth-brother/gender-equality-norway_b_6809300.html.
    Ovalle, Lismer E. “Long-Term Effects of Gender Representation Quotas on Political Interest within Latin America.” CUNY, CUNY Academic Works, 5 May 2016, academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=hc_sas_etds.
    UN Women. “Facts and Figures: Leadership and Political Participation.” UN Women, UN Women, July 2017, http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/leadership-and-political-participation/facts-and-figures.
    UN Women. “NORWAY’S NATIONAL FOLLOW-UP TO THE UNITED NATIONS’ FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN.” United Nations, United Nations, http://www.un.org/esa/gopher-data/conf/fwcw/natrep/NatActPlans/norway.en.

  • Lia_bommarito
    Lia_bommarito November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Germany
    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    School: Williamston High School
    Delegate: Lia Bommarito
    Throughout history, women were not seen as equal to men. Even in 2017, marginalization and oppression still persist in many regions and states. Because of a long history of sexism and institutionalized that dates back to the first functional societies, women are discouraged from participating in society politically. Oftentimes the political participation of a group can be measured by active voting, as well as how many parliament seats are held by women in each country; as of June 2016, only 22.8 percent of parliamentarians were women, a slow increase from the measured 11.3 percent in 1995, and women consistently vote less than men, even when usually the balance of genders is equal. However, activist groups from first-, second- and third-wave feminism, as well as political inclusionists and progressive agendas, have furthered the percent of women who are actively included in political activities. Some nations around the world are lead by women; nations such as Germany, led by Chancellor Angela Merkel, or Liberia, who is headed by President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf; even with these powerful examples of political progress, only 10 percent of United Nations member states have had a woman as head of state either in the past or now. Moreover, nations that set an example of female political participation are nations such as Rwanda and Bolivia, as they have the highest percentages of female participation in parliament (61.3 percent and 53.1 percent, respectively, while the international average is 23.3 percent). Even with various examples of feminine political progress, women are consistently less active in government, and with the female population equating fifty percent of the population, the political equivalent still differs.
    As previously mentioned, Germany is one of the few member states of the United Nations that has had a female head-of-state, and currently is under the term of Chancellor Angela Merkel. Merkel has been in power since 2005, going on 13 years, and is a global example of a dominant, influential woman in political power. As for parliament participation, Germany is higher than the world average with a 39.1 percent participation; but still only ranks number 22 in the world for female parliament percentages. Despite Merkel’s leadership, German sexism in politics still exists; despite the Chancellor being a woman, not many lower or mid-level governmental positions are held by women. Alice Schwarzer, the country’s best-known feminist, lends her quote to this issue: “Since 2005, little girls can decide: Do I become a hairdresser — or chancellor?” While the state of gendered politics and participation may outwardly seem fantastic, Germany still struggles with uplifting women; the climate for German women in politics is icy, but warmer than most nations. Germany does not have to deal with fundamental problems, such as removing all de facto restrictions on women’s suffrage, or dealing with assault on women for seeking education or leadership politically. However, Germany attempts to manage the onslaught of hidden problems such as a wage gap higher than the European average, lack of political representation in parliament, and “feminist” being perceived with a negative connotation.
    Whether or not Germany must handle fundamental issues, the international community has many nations still living in the midst of extreme misogyny. There is no nation that still does not allow women to vote; however, nations such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Afghanistan, where women have just gained the right to vote in the last 20 years, women still suffer from assault and gendered violence from attempting to vote. The fact that this de facto violence still persists although voting is legal deserves a written resolution addressing the issue. Also, Germany plans to resolve the issue through a detailed plan for nations to adapt as a long-term goal for the future, using “evolution rather than revolution” to implement gender quotas in government, aiming at least for the international average in parliaments – 22.3 percent – and for a gradual increase of 2 percent per year. Additionally, Germany plans to encourage political participation by implementing an ad campaign and initiative to encourage women to vote in all nations, aiming to close the gendered gap in voters, especially in developed nations where women’s suffrage is recent. Moreover, Germany plans to also focus on specific issues for developed nations, such as the pay gap and public perception of women’s rights and feminism. While Germany is a nation that claims to be a champion of women’s rights, moving forward, Germany hopes to tackle the topic head-on, and work with different nations of all backgrounds, such as Saudi Arabia, France, the United States of America, Rwanda, and Bolivia.

  • Megancaroline
    Megancaroline November 15, 2017 Reply

    11/14/17
    UN WOMEN
    RUSSIAN FEDERATION
    ENCOURAGING POLITICAL PARTICIPATION BY WOMEN

    With a global population that is fifty percent women, it would make sense for half of the world’s lawmakers to be women. This, unfortunately, is not the case in much of the world, and most nations’ governments consist mainly of men. The primary issue with this common occurrence is that when only men are involved in politics, women’s voices tend to get lost and therefore their views are not well represented. While many Russian women have succeeded in occupying official positions (notably, Valentina Matviyenko, chairwoman of the Federation Council) and the involvement of women in politics is increasing, the political gender gap is still a global issue that needs to be resolved.

    As a strong proponent for women’s participation in politics, Russia recognizes and commends the efforts that UN Women has made to help women’s voices be heard, especially in places where they have previously been suppressed. However, it is important to recognize that the gap still exists between men and women, and even more so to understand that the root cause of this division lies within cultural and societal norms that have existed for a very long time. For centuries, women have been seen as inferior to men and these patriarchal beliefs still linger in most of modern society in practice, if not in law.

    Changing these deeply rooted ideas is something that will take a lot of time, but there are questions that we as a committee can consider in order to further our understanding of the problems that women are facing and why. Firstly, how do we address the lack of female officials in a way that considers the lack of qualified candidates running? Secondly, how can we work to reduce the harmful effects of cultural biases against women that still considers that no two countries’ cultural and economic systems are exactly the same? A sound resolution will consider these issues and ensure that in working to solve them, the sovereignty of states that may be deemed worthy of intervention is still respected.

    The only way to ensure progress as a committee is to take into account every nation’s perspectives on this issue, and to be willing to work together as united nations. Russia looks forward to engaging in effective debate and creating a resolution that takes a step in the direction of political equaliy for women and men.

  • 18StatteAn
    18StatteAn November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Swaziland
    Committee: UN Women
    Delegate: Anneliese Stattelman
    School: Williamston High School

    Political participation by women is important because of the vastly different experiences of men and women, and the need to represent these experiences through the platform of politics. Women make up half of the world’s population, but their representation in politics in Sub Saharan Africa repeatedly makes up less than thirty percent. Despite the 2005 Constitution’s Bill of Rights declaring women to have the same rights as men, women in Swaziland still face unequal social, economic, legal, political, and cultural treatment. Further legislation enforcing the Bill of Rights is lacking, resulting in the perpetuation of women being treated as minors or second-class citizens. According to the Afrobarometer briefing paper, many international conferences have agreed to a target of 30% representation of women in decision-making positions in government and the private sector. In Africa, only 11 countries had met this target as of 1 April 2014. Swaziland was not among these 11.
    In a review conducted by the by AfriMAP and the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa, Swaziland’s current guidelines for encouraging political participation by women were outlined. The Constitution specifically stipulates that in the House of Assembly’s election of ten members of Senate, five candidates must be women and that the King in appointing members of the House of Assembly and Senate, should appoint at least five and seven women respectively. The Constitution also provides that where, after an election, there are less than 30% women in Parliament, the Elections and Boundaries Commission (EBC) should conduct an election for an additional four women members – one from each of the four regions of the country. Despite these measures, women elected into any form of office has not seen a significant increase. For this, there are many contributing factors. Women in all four regions of Swaziland who expressed interest in engaging in politics as candidates’ experiences questioning on their cultural and domestic roles. Many cultural traditions become roadblocks for women when it comes to politics. For example, it is the norm to ask one’s husband to participation when wanting to become involved in politics, and because women move to the communities of their husbands upon marriage, women are usually viewed as newcomers to a community. Unlike their male counterparts, women are not the head of the household. This status prevents them from acquiring sufficient means such as capital to run for office. Women who do show political interest are sometimes the targets of hate crimes, and the stigma around political participation by women is ever present. The percentage of women in parliament still consistently dips below 20%.
    Swaziland is not opposed to further legislation granting women greater rights in the sphere of political participation. However, Swaziland also seeks to honor its traditional culture while doing so. Previous programs and NGOs implanted in the past have included Women and Law in Southern Africa (WLSA), Council of Swaziland Churches and other members of the Coordinating Assembly of Non-Governmental Organizations (CANGO) Gender Consortium, in partnership with the Gender Unit and supported by the United Nations Development Program. These efforts have not been the most invective in reaching their goals of increasing political participation by women. It is Swaziland’s goal to expand upon previously funded programs to increase efficiency, and it is Swaziland’s wish that its cultural traditions are respected and kept in mind while forming these possible expansions. Swaziland is also in support of drafting further legislation to ensure political participation by women.

  • Tylergrubb
    Tylergrubb November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Women Committee
    Encouraging Political Participation By Women
    State of Israel
    Tyler Grubb

    Participation by women in political processes has only relatively recently began. Within the political world, women make up a small percentage of leadership roles. Without female participation in governments, regulations and laws will not consider the view of the women within their communities and their countries. In past years, UN Women has supported the increase of balanced political representation, the increase of women legislators, and the increase of female candidates. As about half of the world’s population is women, our committee of United Nations Women must consider and examine the world’s view of women in politics. In most countries, women make up the a large portion of citizens; however, they also tend to have the least amount of political participation. Many countries have limited women’s ability to participate in politics through the national government, or because of religious views. In order for women to find greater gender equality in countries, the United Nations must give guidelines for countries to create a seamless transition between levels women’s political participation.

    As a country that is made up of 50.6% women, and has 98 men for every 100 women, Israel understands the importance of including and increasing women in politics. Israel has continuously increased the number of women participating politically since 1949. In 1950 there were only 4.2% of women participating in local governments, but by 2013 about 51% of all civil officers and district court judges are women. In Israel these numbers have been consistently increasing, and women have found their way into influential and important roles in politics. Although Israel has women involved in the governments, their numbers are not usually reflected in leadership roles. However, several major political parties have have set guidelines for minimum amounts of women that must be in there party. Israel supported United Nations Women on many decisions that affect the political positions of women, including the UN Women strategic plan 2018-2021. Israel has also joined intergovernmental organizations agreements that recognize and propose ways to solve the lack of female participation of women in politics including WILPF, NA’AMAT, and WIZO. Israel recognizes integral connection between empowering women and advancing global development goals, including poverty and hunger eradication. Israel believes that the United Nations must be the organization that all countries follow, when considering effectively encouraging political participation of women.

    Israel believes the most effective way to encourage political participation by women is to go automatically to local and national government positions through requiring a certain number of national and local government positions to be filled by educated women, as this will give women direct powers over the government, and directly express their perspectives and experiences. Israel proposes that the United Nations recomend countries create a percentage of local and national government positions that must be filled by women and recomend countries give women voting rights. These positions should be filled by educated and intellectual women. To increase the amount of women that qualify for these positions, the United Nations should encourage countries to increase the availability of higher level education to women. By doing this, the United Nations can guarantee an increase in female participation. A resolution that advocates for both local and national governments to increase the number of leadership positions for women in each country will have the most influential results.

  • Emilykgoff
    Emilykgoff November 15, 2017 Reply

    Iraq believes that women are equal and should be treated as such. This means that they should be given the same opportunities as men in jobs and should be involved in the government. The issue is that countries are not giving women the representation they need and are making and passing laws without a large percentage of the population being represented fairly. There is also not a requirement of how many women need to serve in the government of other countries, leading to underrepresentation of women in the government and women’s needs and opinions being ignored. While men have been in total power for most of human history, females were often treated as property and not given equal rights. The only way society is able to pursue equal rights is if more women are encouraged and allowed to have government positions.
    Iraq sees women as equal and as such they should have equal representation in the government. Iraq is able to achieve equal representation by requiring that a quarter of the parliament is made of women, thus ensuring that no matter what women will always have a voice about what is going on in the country. It is only fair to allow women a platform to be heard among men to breakup the misogyny of the past.
    Iraq would like to see that there is a requirement to how many women have to serve in different parts of a country’s government to prevent unfair laws being passed without women being represented.

  • avatar image
    Kate Loope November 15, 2017 Reply

    Delegate: Kate Loope
    Topic: Women in Politics
    Country: Nigeria
    Committee: UN Women

    Women in Politics
    Many believe that more women should be involved in national or even international governments, but the countries who have stated these opinions are large, wealthy, First-world nations. For developing countries, such as Nigeria, we view this issue in a different way. My nation is split politically into the North and South. Southern Nigeria is predominantly Christian, and women have a large role in the economic system. This places them in a spot where they are important towards the government, which is very progressive to Nigeria. In the North, the major religion is Islam, and most still follow Sharia law, which subjects women to a lower social status. As the world around us develops, our nation will too, but until Nigeria is as wealthy as Britain for example, these religions are the foundation that hold Nigeria up. In 1982, a feminist movement began at Ahmadu Bello University. These progressive are very positive for Nigeria, but until we can become stronger economically, we cannot work the large feminist movements in until later. Some women that can begin to create small ripples in the role of women would be the elite, high class Islamic and Christian women. These women can change the 4% in Nigeria’s government to a much larger number. To solve this issue, education of women should be improved for third-world countries once they are steady economically and politically. Once again, religion will be a stronghold until Nigeria is able to stand high among other first-world nations.

  • avatar image
    Cristina Gardner November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee- UN Women
    Topic- Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Country- Azerbaijan

    Azerbaijan has a strategic alliance with Israel. Israel’s pre state experience of discrimination and persecution had produced in the founders of the state a heightened sensitivity to the issue of the group discrimination and this included an appreciation of the need for equal treatment of women. In the public sphere, observance of religious courts of exclusive jurisdiction over matters of personal status (such as the matter of marriage and divorce) excludes women from taking public office on such matters—there are no women acting as rabbinical judges, kadis or priests with judicial authority in the various religious courts. We seconds these views.
    Sharia Law, or Islamic Law is the religious law forming part of the the Islamic tradition. Seeing as in 96.9% of our population is Muslim, we are against the participation of political participation of women in our country. In our country, 12 percent of women hold decision-making positions in government. We feel as though women lack the training and experience needed for them to qualify for political duties. We refuse to include women in our cabinet. Women are such a small force, and are not capable of the tasks we put upon the men in our country.
    There are no legal registrations on the participation of women in politics in our country. Because of this, we have no obligation to include women in politics in any way shape or form. By saying this, I am not saying we have no women involved in politics, but the vast majority is dominated by men: the stronger, more capable of the two genders.

  • avatar image
    Donnie Crossley November 15, 2017 Reply

    UN Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Afghanistan
    Donald Wayne Crossley Jr

    Women’s political involvement has been a growing topic throughout the United Nations for some time now, but has never been formally addressed. Modern society is changing and most nations are changing with it. The political involvement of women is at an all time high in most democratic countries. Afghanistan has to disagree with these democratic parties as we have always looked down upon the political involvement of women. This does not mean we are not open to compromises. Afghanistan has had women in its government before. In 2004, Afghanistan had a woman presidential candidate by the name of Masooda Jalal. We are open to some variety of compromisation, but Afghanistan has to make it clear that we do not stand for women’s participation in government.
    The political involvement of women is increasing exponentially. Some countries choose to remain behind, prohibiting the political involvement of women in their nation. The most recent presidential election in the United States had a women as the leader of the Democratic party. Afghanistan has to put down these unnecessary and inappropriate movements in the world. This new era of inserting women into international matters is ridiculous. For centuries, women have been the housekeepers and the child-raisers and men were the laborers. This system has worked since the beginning of time, so why stray from it now? Afghanistan’s government has been lenient when it comes to women’s political involvement. The executive branch does not reserve spots for women, but there have been a few female ministers and election candidates. Some sections of our government, such as the High Council of the Supreme Court of Afghanistan, have not had women inducted into them. Afghanistan’s government is open to women involvement, but it is looked down upon in the social standard. Afghanistan will not fight for political involvement of women.
    Afghanistan is more than willing to compromise. Feminine political involvement is not a drastic or life-depending topic right now. A recommendation would be to leave the legality of women’s participation in politics up to the sole country’s decision. Some nations’ cultures has just not reached the capability of accepting women into politics yet, and the members of the United Nations should respect that. Afghanistan would be happy to cooperate in the writing of a resolution that supports the idea of leaving this topic up to the country’s decision.

  • Benarmbrester
    Benarmbrester November 15, 2017 Reply

    UN Women Committee
    Reproductive Health
    United States of America
    Dawson Benjamin Armbrester

    The United State’s policy on women’s reproductive rights is to support and fund programs that include pro-life policy and are strictly against coerced abortions. Since 1973, the famed U.S. supreme court case Roe v Wade has made it legal for women in the United States to have an abortion. Worldwide, there are roughly 85 million unplanned pregnancies each year and half of those pregnancies end in abortion. That is millions upon millions of babies being innocently killed because women do not have the necessary contraceptive methods. Since 1965, in the U.S. supreme court case Griswold v connecticut, married couples in the United States have had the right to use contraceptives to prevent many unplanned pregnancies that end up in abortion. Also, the United States is a major supporter of sex education and women’s health services as long as they are not accompanied by abortion services. President Trump represents this by saying, “I am pro-life and I am deeply committed to investing in women’s health and plan to significantly increase federal funding in support of non-abortion services such as cancer screenings.” For organizations, such as Planned Parenthood and UNFPA, the federal government is defunding them unless they stop providing abortion services.

    The U.S. continues to support the sovereignty of member nations to make their own women’s reproductive health policy. Rather than funding organizations like the UNFPA, the funding will be diverted to other programs to support reproductive health under the U.S.’s Global Health Programs. Women worldwide suffer through child marriage, genital mutilation, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy related deaths. To help combat these issues, Nikki Haley outlines the United States policy on women’s reproductive health by saying, “We should encourage every country to support women’s basic rights, and we should help them in any way that we can. But we should also call out any country that is not supporting these basic rights and let them know that we will not stand for it.” Although the United States supports other countries, it still maintains the importance of remaining sovereign so it can make its own decisions regarding women’s health issues and its ability to protect the right to life for all people can not be hindered.

  • Benarmbrester
    Benarmbrester November 15, 2017 Reply

    UN Women Committee
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    United States of America
    Dawson Benjamin Armbrester

    Around the world, men control the political process at the expense of women and many women are left without much representation, voice, and natural human rights. In Ethiopia, women work 13 to 17 hour workdays; they are poorer and less-educated than Ethiopian men and have little time to participate or vote in the political process. In Yemen, only 42% of women are literate and of the 301 seats in the House of Representatives, only 1 member is female. In Pakistan, only 25% of women are in the labor force in comparison to 86% of men. The United States of America prides itself on freedom and equal rights and since 1920, when women were granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women have been able to engage in the political process at their own will.

    With 21% of the senate, 19% of the house, and 12% of the state governors being women, allowing women to participate in politics in the United States is not as significant of an issue as it is in other countries. Not to mention, 63.3% of eligible women voted in the 2016 presidential election compared to only 59.3% of eligible men. The opportunity for women to participate in politics is definitely available. Title VII of the Civil rights act of 1964 is a federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, and religion. It generally applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including federal, state, and local governments. Given this, women have the complete capability to run for office and participate politically if they choose to do so. Also, the United States supports women participation in politics in other countries as well. The United States strongly supports the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action which advances women’s worldwide social and economic empowerment and promotes women’s public and private leadership which will encourage women to participate in politics more. The U.S. also supports the ILO Declaration of 1998 which allows women to gain the financial and social means to be more involved in politics.

    Although women have the opportunity to participate in politics in the United States, the U.S. can do a better job instilling confidence and courage within females throughout the world that strive to make political change. Using the private sector and not government resources, the U.S. is creating new programs, such as the Equal Futures Partnership, to help women’s empowerment in politics throughout the world. The United States commend UN Women’s efforts to leverage its unique position in the UN system to help close the global gender gap and create more economic and political opportunities for women. Additionally, Nikki Haley, the United States ambassador to the United Nations, states “There is no room here for cultural relativism. This Human Rights Council must adopt strong resolutions condemning violence and discrimination against women and it must take a decisive action to eliminate trafficking.” Thousands of Yazidi women and girls have been kidnapped by ISIS and then bought and sold like animals. The victims of rape and sexual slavery are understandably reluctant to speak out publicly. The United States can help these women, and women in countries of strife, by supporting their inclusion into the peace processes which would help women further integrate themselves into the labor force and politics. This kind of support, along with involvement in the UN Strategic Plan from 2018-2021, will allow the United States to inspire women’s participation in politics throughout the world.

  • Carlsonkaci19
    Carlsonkaci19 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Country: France

    In the year 2000, France implemented a law on political parity, allowing for equal access to political participation from both men and women. Women in France have had a long history of lack of representation in politics, in 1945 women represented only 5% of national assembly députés. They now make up about 11% of the deputes but only around 6 percent of the senators in the country. In many ways the European Union has been the main catalyst to pushing the French legislature toward adopting new measures in changing the political participation opportunities for women in France. The European Union has had great influences in the topics of employment discrimination and sexual harassment, gender stereotypes and gender quotas in decision making.
    Frances view on the topic of political participation by women is overall positive and encouraging towards a greater input from women. Our view and goal is to encourage a greater increase of activity and participation by women in parliament as well as politics as a whole. It is our belief that gender equality is a top priority and should be pushed and enforced by all forms and levels of government. France has been a long time member of the UN security council and women and peace committees and made resolutions and great strides toward equality.

  • Kat.Mooney
    Kat.Mooney November 15, 2017 Reply

    Women are involved with the government in Tajikistan. Although the number of women in politics is not as high as the number of men, the government of Tajikistan is voted into power by the people. The people vote for the representatives they believe will improve our country. By creating laws that will give woman easier access to government power will create a biased unfair election. The people will not be truly represented by leaders that reflect their beliefs. When the former soviet union left Tajikistan the number of women in politics decreased. This was because laws put in place by the former soviet union forced women into politics unfairly representing the people of Tajikistan and their beliefs. Although Tajikistan is not a declared Islamic state many of the Tajikistan citizens follow Islamic practices. These values are traditional to our country. Women have been a key part of the family setting in Tajikistan communities. The citizens of our nation believe woman’s support is needed most in the home, not in the political government.
    Although traditional Tajikistan beliefs place woman in the home there are many women in the government of Tajikistan. 3% of the nation’s parliament, as well as 7% of the nation’s senior posts within government ministries, are represented by a woman. Although these numbers are small they were voted into office by the people to represent them. Along with these woman on the national scale, many women represent their regions and villages. 5 woman head administrations of cities and regions. 70% of deputy chairs of local administrations are held by a woman. 8% of village councils are lead by a woman. These women have been elected by their own right, they did not require government assistance to be put into power by our people. Woman have representation in government and if the people see a need to change these statistics it will reflect in how they vote in the next election.
    In addition to the woman in the nation’s government, there are several non-government organizations woman are involved in. These organizations can impact the nation’s government in great ways, 35% of all non-government organizations in Tajikistan are lead by women. These organizations were created for the purpose of pushing for women equality in our nation and other injustices. The issues are being handled within our own country as our people would believe best not as other countries that are not familiar with our culture and beliefs view as best.

  • Madikoresh
    Madikoresh November 15, 2017 Reply

    November 15, 2017
    UN Women
    South Africa
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women

    Around the world, women are not given a voice in their own government. This opportunity is taken away from them for no reason. In many nations, women are discriminated against and in many nations women are much less educated than their male counterparts. However in other countries there have been strides to allow women to represent in their government, South Africa being one of those many. The delegation of South Africa believes that women have a right to be part of parliament and the government in general. In this committee we need not look to find the problems, only to solve them.

    Before 1994, only 2.7% of parliamentary seats were held by women. Since that year, the amount of women in South Africa’s government has greatly increased. Women now occupy 43% of Cabinet posts, 46% of Deputy Minister Positions, and 41% of parliamentary seats, which is a rise from previous years. This 38.3% increase is greatly due to South African women actively seeking change. South Africa is also one of only 3 nations in Africa where women account for more than 30% of ministers in the cabinet. South Africa’s government has overall seen an improvement since gaining women in their government.

    In this committee, the delegations need to work together quickly and efficiently to seek a resolution. Women are needed in a country’s government to protect their rights and speak for that side of the population. South Africa hopes to have other delegations seek a resolution for this problem and overall support policies that advocate for women’s political participation.

  • Rdooley
    Rdooley November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Country: Republic of Korea

    Many countries have made steps toward encouraging women’s participation in political processes and granting them power equal to men. In spite of outbursts of violence and discrimination against women both domestically and globally, the Republic of Korea hopes on working toward creating policy that frees women of this hate.
    The Republic of Korea proudly shows that women play important role in government, and think that women in politics should become commonplace. Korea has recently hosted our first female president, who was freely elected by the people. President Moon Jae-in shows this same spirit in appointing several highly skilled women to high ranking positions. The Republic of Korea has officially taken steps toward the end of discrimination based on gender with both laws and actions. According to Ambassador Shin Dong-Ik, “The role of government in the intervention, prevention, and punishment of violence against women is vital.” In addition, “The Republic of Korea believes that the full realization of gender equality and eradication of gender discrimination are crucial to end violence against women.” We believe not only in these words, but in the idea that women deserve and are able to represent themselves in government. Many other laws have been enacted, such as those offering stronger support for victims of sexual discrimination, that stand in favor of equality. The Republic of Korea does not stand behind the continued prejudice against women and their political abilities.
    The Republic of Korea hopes to come up with resolutions and other ideas to encourage the protection of women against discrimination, and offer them strong voices in political processes. We hope that other states will join us in helping our peers follow the inclusionary direction of these new policies.

  • avatar image
    Jasmyne Bush November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Burkina Faso
    Committee:UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Delegate: Jasmyne Bush
    School: Williamston High School

    From the local to the global level, women’s leadership and political participation are restricted. Women are underrepresented in different branches of politics such as: leading positions, the civil service, and the private sector or academia. Despite the fact that women have proven their leadership, have been agents of change, and have proved their right to participate equally in democratic governance, this is restriction still occurs. Women face many obstacles of participating in political life. Things like discriminatory laws and institutions still limit women’s options to run for office. Capacity gaps mean women are less likely to have the education, contacts, and resources needed to become the successful leaders they could be. For women as a whole, the playing fields need to be level, opening more opportunities for everyone and not just men.
    Burkina Faso has been independent. Women won the right to universal in 1956, with the adoption of the Framework Law. Nonetheless, women’s access to the legislature has been slow and has even been limited even after independence. It was not until 2000 that a woman assumed the position of chairperson of a legislative committee, when one was designated to chair the Committee on Employment and Social and Cultural Affairs. In the socio-cultural traditions of Burkina Faso, women are mostly seen as inferior to men. Numerous women have now convinced themselves that they do not have the right to participate in public decision making. The alternative of this is that women conform to “viruses” such as obedience and submission. This is mostly taught at a young age in their upbringing.
    Certain actions that the government has taken have been insufficient .The government needs to start making courageous decisions to examine the possibility of imposing a quota of women on the parties’ electoral lists, as a medium-term goal. The government should also study the effects of the different counting methods on the political representation of women in the elected bodies , so to consider adjusting or modifying the electoral system. The political parties should take action themselves and designate more women to their decision-making bodies. This way the have the opportunity to see to it that the quota of women is respected and not tarnished. For women, certain women activists and women with responsibility in politics should take it upon themselves to help women who have yet to overcome this struggle to do so. This could potentially give the women the confidence they are now lacking with a new vibrant confidence they can now tackle these obstacles with. To this end, it will be necessary to integrate in all literacy and training programmes, and to develop new advocacy strategies. In order for their to be women in the national legislature, synergy is needed among the government, the deputies, and the women’s organization. The state of Burkina Faso has to play a major role because public authority is vested in it – it has the political, legislative, judicial, and economic power to make all decisions capable of promoting women’s rights.

  • Jazzywazzy1023
    Jazzywazzy1023 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Burkina Faso
    Committee:UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Delegate: Jasmyne Bush
    School: Williamston High School

    From the local to the global level, women’s leadership and political participation are restricted. Women are underrepresented in different branches of politics such as: leading positions, the civil service, and the private sector or academia. Despite the fact that women have proven their leadership, have been agents of change, and have proved their right to participate equally in democratic governance, this is restriction still occurs. Women face many obstacles of participating in political life. Things like discriminatory laws and institutions still limit women’s options to run for office. Capacity gaps mean women are less likely to have the education, contacts, and resources needed to become the successful leaders they could be. For women as a whole, the playing fields need to be level, opening more opportunities for everyone and not just men.
    Burkina Faso has been independent. Women won the right to universal in 1956, with the adoption of the Framework Law. Nonetheless, women’s access to the legislature has been slow and has even been limited even after independence. It was not until 2000 that a woman assumed the position of chairperson of a legislative committee, when one was designated to chair the Committee on Employment and Social and Cultural Affairs. In the socio-cultural traditions of Burkina Faso, women are mostly seen as inferior to men. Numerous women have now convinced themselves that they do not have the right to participate in public decision making. The alternative of this is that women conform to “viruses” such as obedience and submission. This is mostly taught at a young age in their upbringing.
    Certain actions that the government has taken have been insufficient .The government needs to start making courageous decisions to examine the possibility of imposing a quota of women on the parties’ electoral lists, as a medium-term goal. The government should also study the effects of the different counting methods on the political representation of women in the elected bodies , so to consider adjusting or modifying the electoral system. The political parties should take action themselves and designate more women to their decision-making bodies. This way the have the opportunity to see to it that the quota of women is respected and not tarnished. For women, certain women activists and women with responsibility in politics should take it upon themselves to help women who have yet to overcome this struggle to do so. This could potentially give the women the confidence they are now lacking with a new vibrant confidence they can now tackle these obstacles with. To this end, it will be necessary to integrate in all literacy and training programmes, and to develop new advocacy strategies. In order for their to be women in the national legislature, synergy is needed among the government, the deputies, and the women’s organization. The state of Burkina Faso has to play a major role because public authority is vested in it – it has the political, legislative, judicial, and economic power to make all decisions capable of promoting women’s rights.

  • Evancalderon
    Evancalderon November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging political participation by women
    Country: Argentina
    Delegate: Evan Calderon, FH Northern HS

    The issue of women in government has been a prominent issue since the many suffragist movements in the 20th century and since then, many countries have granted women voting rights and some are still being granted today. Today,women account for only 21.5% of all national assembly positions worldwide. Part of the issue of female participation in government is encouraging participation through education and laws.
    The Argentine Republic (thereafter Argentina) has a history with the topic of encouraging women participation in government. Argentina has come a long way for women in government . Argentina was the first country to adopt a gender quota law in 1991 that required all political parties to nominate women for at least 30% of all electable positions in government. in 2016, the Argentine National Congress passed a gender parity law that requires half of all candidates on a ballot to be women, and if the number of candidates is odd, have the difference between the men and women to differ by no more than one.
    Argentina firmly believes in the participation of women in government, as they make up 50% of the population and 50% of the argentine workforce. They have made great improvement to increase the equality of the gender ratio in the government by passing laws such as the gender quota law in 1991 or the gender parity law in 2016, which now requires 50% of all candidates on a ballot to be women. Argentina believes in encouraging women to participate in the government in ways such as passing laws that require women nominations and/or candidates. Another solution that can help is education. Educating women can help women pursue careers in government which will help in participation by women.
    It is imperative that women have a role in government, as they account for 50% of the population. Encouraging women is an important factor in helping women participate in government and it should be taken upon every national government to provide resources necessary to help encourage and improve women participation in the government.

  • HeNNaH
    HeNNaH November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Country: Laos
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women

    In Laos women are legally in every sense equal to men since 1958 upon their allowance vote. In 1997, the first Vice-President of National Assembly of Laos was elected to serve on the counsel. Laos is a believer in women’s rights. The problem lies in the more rural communities with a lack of paved roads and no easy access for officials to come and enforce the law of the outside modernizing Laos. Laos now developing is coming out of a male dominated era. They are progressive on most issues currently and women’s rights is making it’s way with 60% of Laotian women in the work force. In order for things to work and equally represent the people political participation is needed from everyone involved in the system. A way to increase is the fundamental basis of everything and that is education. Laos is no stranger to this education. Having a seminar of 77 potential women candidates instilling them with a sense of political duty to their country. This is part of the solution that every country with low turnout in general, instilling the youth with ideas that they can make a change and participate in their system. The more education a person has the likelier they are to vote. Women in rural louse can only expect to finish primary school; a fifth grader is interested in the system. Women outside these country communities can expect more participation. Odds stacked against them of no efficient way of transportation, poor education, and weak infrastructure in their transition period will continue to disenfranchise women voters hurting voting participation in turn hurting the parliament and government.

  • RainTarango
    RainTarango November 15, 2017 Reply

    UN Women
    Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Honduras
    Rain Tarango

    Political participation by women continues to be a critical problem that impacts developing countries severely. Ensuring that women have fair access to political spheres as voters, candidates, elected officials and as civil service members is important to the country and the government. Honduras continues to have a strong patriarchal society, where two dominant political parties act mainly in the interest of the economic elite. As a result, the economic elite are men and have incomes that are on average 56% higher than women. This gender inequality makes women especially vulnerable to poverty. In effect, women are not granted adequate education, lack access to health care and suffer from violence and discrimination. It is important to progress the advancement of political participation by women to further advance equal rights for women and to ensure that future elections uphold women’s rights.

    Women in Honduras often can’t participate in politics because they are held back by violence, poverty, lack of quality education and health care. The government has recently been affiliated itself with National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) to raise awareness, encourage women to vote, and lobby male and female candidates to include women’s demands in elections especially in developing countries. In 2001 only 7.4% of representatives were women, and women who are mayors never exceeded 10 %. In order to try and improve this statistic the Electoral and Political Organization Law imposed a quota stating that 30% of candidates should be women in both local and national elections. Additionally, efforts have been made to advise dominate political parties to develop gender equality plans. Due to the education and wealth gap, reductions in the campaign period makes it easier for women candidates, who have less time and financial resources than males, to stand for elections. Furthermore, pictures of candidates are provided to help illiterate voters. Internationally, women make up less than 10% of the world’s leaders. So, in 1995 Honduras joined 17,000 participants to pass the Beijing Platform for Action Resolution, the most progressive blueprint for advancing women’s rights. The Platform for Action connected and reinforced the activism of women’s movements on a global scale by advocating rights for non violence, education and equal pay.Women and girls serve in more political offices due to the protection offered by gender-based anti-violence laws. It becomes imperative to begin integrating women into politics and government in Honduras because of the low participation rates and gender inequality. Although some efforts are being taken to try and facilitate this change, change has been slowed because of the violence, poverty, lack of quality education and health care that women face in everyday life.

    To advance political participation, UN Women and the government of Honduras work to accelerate change and establish a commitment to gender equality and influence the adoption of public decisions to hold governments accountable. Political participation has increased in many first world countries however in Honduras education is needed to provide a government that encourages gender equality. Providing training for women political candidates helps build their capacities and offer voter education on gender equality. Additionally, backing gender equality advocates in calling on political parties and governments to do their part to empower women is especially critical in Honduras because of the patriarchal society that acts in favor of the elite. Legislative and constitutional reforms will help to ensure women have fair access to political spheres and a society that upholds women’s rights.

  • Natasha.E
    Natasha.E November 15, 2017 Reply

    Natasha
    Country: Chile
    Model UN women.
    Chile supports political participation by women fully. In 2006, we elected our first female president who focused on domestic violence. Back in 2004, we legalized divorce giving females who were in dangerous situations an escape. We recognized that if the marriage is violent, abusive, and manipulative, then the woman should have the right to divorce as well as the man. Chilean women have had the right to vote and participate politically in national elections since January 8, 1949. Women in Chile average around the same literacy rate as men also a reason to push for further equality. Even though women have these political rights, there is still room for improvement. Majority of women in Chile report that gender roles and traditions still prove to be a major issue. Traditional house wife roles are still expectant in women. Since Chilean women are educated as much as men, they should also be able to work outside of the home and not be shamed for it. In the work industry, there is an income gap between women and men. For simple jobs that do not require a degree, women get paid averaging around twenty percent less than men. In jobs that require a degree that gap grows to an overwhelming forty percent. Overall, Chile believes that women’s’ roles’ in politics have grown from where they started. Chile acknowledges and hopes to work with any other countries willing to support politics for women. Hopefully we can work together to further women’s equality, such as filling the income gap, dissolving gender roles, and promoting and supporting female politicians.

  • Deemsus
    Deemsus November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Italy
    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation By Women
    Delegate: Suzy Deems
    School: East Grand Rapids High School
    Women’s participation in Italy derives from a historical perspective. Women were given a certain role in society that functioned around a home and they were not allowed to participate in the government. Then in the last seventy years their opportunities to vote and participate in office holding increased.
    It is necessary to break down the remainder of the patriarchal structure that still remains. Women need to be encouraged to study politics, run for office, join political clubs, contribute to their favorite candidates and achieve a position of equality in government.
    Italy was a patriarchal Catholic religious society and women did not participate in government until after World War II. They were then given the right to vote in national elections and to be elected to government positions. In the new constitution of 1948, it affirmed that women have equal rights. It was not until the 1970s through that woman in Italy scored some major achievements with the introduction of law regulating divorce, abortion, and the approval of the new family code in 1975. Italy has been slowly emerging and developing from this. Italy is very progressive with women in politics today. As if March 16, we just elected our 3rd women president to the Italian Camera, Luara Boldrini. The literacy rate of women is only slightly lower than that of men, as of 2011, it was 98.7% female and 99.2% male. Women are well represented in all academic subjects and 66% of Italian university graduates are female. Italy is striving to increase our workforce of women because only 80% of women who graduate go on to seek jobs. Women of Italy get paid the same amount as men if they hold a white-collar job. Blue collar women do not fare as well. Italy strives to be diverse and inclusive. We encourage all the other countries to come together in the global UN community to overcome this problem.

  • Elwine39
    Elwine39 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women
    Country: Spain
    Represented by: The Roeper School
    Submitted by: Emma Wine

    Hello fellow delegates, Spain looks forward to working in cooperation with you all. Spain believes the lack of political participation of women is a problem of significant detriment to The Kingdom of Spain. The involvement of women in the political sphere in Spain is significant but could still be improved. Spain has the second highest percentage of female members of parliament, (behind only Sweden, with 45%.) The leader of Spain’s Congress of Deputies is a woman, Ana Pastor. Women’s representation is not as strong in other areas of the national government. As of 2014, the percentage of female members in the Spanish government was 30.77% and only 12.35% of the supreme court members are women. Most importantly, Spain’s legislature (Congress and Senate) has 40% female membership as of 2014. Spain is proud to say literacy rates, school life expectancy, and unemployment rates are identical for men and women.
    Spain is committed to not only promoting an increase in female leadership in the government, but also in businesses. However, there is a significant gap in women in leadership as the 2013 Active Population study reported only 30.4% of the direction and senior management positions were filled by women. We adopted a Code of Good Governance of Listed Companies which urges companies to have a minimum of 30% of managment female by 2020. Through the Equal Opportunities Strategic Plan in 2014-2016 and the Strategic Plan for Equal Opportunities 2017-2020 currently being created, Spain has committed to empowering women and creating opportunities for female involvement. Spain reaffirmed its relationship with the UN Women (that was first established in 2005) and its dedication to advocating for women’s rights by signing onto the Strategic Partnering Framework in 2015, thus declaring support for UN Goal Five.
    Spain looks forward to working cooperatively to pass resolutions to minimize this gap globally.

  • Taylor.foster
    Taylor.foster November 15, 2017 Reply

    UN WOMEN

    PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS

    GREECE

    The issue is women’s lack of participation in politics around the world. Women have been able to participate in politics for around 120 years now so why haven’t they? Women have trouble being apart of politics because of gender discrimination, unemployment, and illiteracy. It is important for women to take part in politics on their country so women’s concerns are seen in the government’s eye.

    Women in Greece face gender based violence, illiteracy and uncertainty. economic future but the committee of elimination of discrimination against women has helped Greece take a step in the right direction by helping make a advanced legislative framework meant to protect women from discrimination and problems such as unemployment and representation. The committee says that women in Greece pay the price for the economic crisis that is going on right now which affects how women are able to participate in politics. But Greece is in the right direction by trying to put women into all spheres of development.

    Us as the UN committee need to put together a resolution that helps make it easier for women to participate in politics which is hard for some women because of the gender inequality and increase women’s participation in politics in every country so that everyone is more equal and women’s concerns and needs are met by the government. I know countries around the world are fighting for not only the right to participate in politics but the right to even go to school as a women. So we as a committee need to do our best to help women across the globe to have the right in what their government does or to be apart of it because as women it is our human right.

  • PatrickGleaton
    PatrickGleaton November 16, 2017 Reply

    Topic: Encouraging Political participation by women
    Country:UAE
    Represented by: Kalamazoo Central
    Submitted by: Patrick Gleaton

    The UAE feels strongly that all citizens should be able to participate in running the government regardless of gender. We are a leading country for gender equality in the region. Since we are located in the middle east people think that we hide our women in our homes. Nothing could be further from the truth. 46% of all university graduates in our country are women. 77% of all Emirati women enroll in higher education after secondary school and make up 70% of all university graduates. In 2015 we established the Gender Balance Council which is a federal entity that increases the role of women in leadership positions. We have many female business men that are successful. We look forward to working with you to solve this pressing issue.

  • Cmjohnson917
    Cmjohnson917 November 16, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Women
    Topic: Women’s political involvement
    Country: Algeria
    Women’s involvement in politics in the country of Algeria has seen a vast improvement. The country of Algeria has made incredible progress. With the help of The United Nations in 2012, Algeria established a requirement of having at least thirty percent of their elected assembly members be women. The executive director of UN Women, Michelle Bachelet, notes that the thirty percent quota is up eight percent from 2011. This quota has motivated many women of the country of Algeria to pursue political science. This results in eighteen percent of the local court seats being held by women.
    The government plays an important role in providing women with political opportunities and defending them. In 2015, over three hundred women received expert training and education in Algerian politics across five provinces. This project will be implemented in another five provinces. Yasmina, a woman who received the expert training, reveals that she traveled one hundred and fifty kilometers one way each day. With the combination of Algeria’s local government and the UNDP, they’ve managed to secure training expertise from Isabelle Durant, former vice president of the European Parliament.
    The election of 2017 revealed that at least five political parties refused to print images of their female candidates. These parties were faced with an ultimatum from The Electoral Authority of Algeria which stated that if these specified parties did not print photos of their female candidates in two days, they would be removed from the race. The country of Algeria ranks first in the Arab World for women’s involvement in politics. This also makes it twenty sixth in the world.

    http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2012/5/un-women-welcomes-increased-number-of-women-in-algeria-s-parliament

  • Brookeblackwell
    Brookeblackwell November 16, 2017 Reply

    Submitted to: UN Women
    From: Chad
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation by Women

    Chad, regretfully, has a long history of discrimination against women. The culture that exists in Chad is one that often leaves women behind, whether this may concerning what rights the law provides you with, education, or social hierarchies. Chad is not alone in this. It is fair to say that every nation has a discriminatory history against women. One of the best ways to battle the treatment and stereotypes that stifle women is to give them a voice in the legislative body that governs them.
    There are many factors that go into women being represented in government besides simply the legal opportunity to be able to or not be able to serve in government and politics based on gender. Somebody that hasn’t received an adequate education generally would not be able to successfully fill a role in politics, and in many countries, education for females is hard to access. The UN has programs set in place to help spur education for women, could we also implement a program that allows women to be trained and taught about government and politics?
    The cultural atmosphere of a nation or region is also something that indirectly influences the amount of women participating in politics. If a girl is married off at a young age (under eighteen years old), participating in government becomes increasingly difficult as the young girl is sometimes prematurely burdened with the weight of what can be a restrictive husband, the duties of a wife, or even a child. As of 2015, child marriage is prohibited in Chad, but this is something that still occurs in Chad and elsewhere despite laws, and we must work to stop this and create a new social norm where women are allowed to come of age and live out their childhood. Restricting the rights of women forcibly can no longer be excused or justified by culture.
    Addressing these secondary factors that indirectly influence a woman’s access to politics allows us to start at the root of the problem and work our way up from there. A good resolution should address both the legislative and cultural aspects of women in politics while keeping in mind the logistics that would go into creating any sort of program or formal declaration.
    All throughout the world’s history, women have been the backbone of our society’s and have provided the foundations for today’s civilizations as we know them. However, there has been a repeating pattern of discrimination against women in cultures all over. This has stemmed from traditional gender roles, and it will take the global community uniting to end stigma against women in politics, a traditionally male dominated field.

  • OscarOBC
    OscarOBC November 16, 2017 Reply

    Country:United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom understands that there are many issues associated with Women’s suffrage. In many countries of the world, women cannot vote, start a political movement, or hold office in their perspective countries. England has had issues with women’s rights in the past, but we have attempted to reconcile these issues and we made progress. We want to spread our ideals onto other countries, as we feel it would benefit them, as did our nation.

  • avatar image
    Lily Martin November 16, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UN Women
    Topic: Encouraging Political Participation
    Country: Saudi Arabia

    Saudi Arabia government is dominated by a vast royal family, the Al Sad. In the government of Saudi Arabia, the members of the family are the principal political actors. Saudi Arabia is continuing to encourage political participation for Saudi women especially. Saudi Arabia is doing an exceptional job at actively improving political participation for women. We are continuing to improve. The reason for women not being able to participate in previous elections, such as the 2005 election, was because not enough women would be available to staff female only polling stations. Female only polling stations are a necessity because we believe women should limit their time with men whom them are not married or related to. In addition, only a small number of women at the time held ID cards which are a requirement to vote in Saudi Arabia. In September 2011, King Abdullah announced that “Women will be able to run as candidates in the municipal election and will even have a right to vote”. Women now have the right to both vote and stand for election from 2012, meaning that they were entitled to participate in the 2015 municipal elections. King Abdullah said women in Saudi Arabia “have demonstrated positions that expressed correct opinions and advice”. The majority of our citizens our happy with the changes we have made. Other countries to look towards Saudi Arabia as an example. Saudi Arabia managed to balance our beliefs to find a happy medium.

Leave a reply