The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

To understand the topic at hand, it is important to understand the typical model of economic development. As this process begins, agriculture is the primary driver of any nation’s economy. The extraction and export of valuable resources such as petroleum and minerals usually coincides with this period, or follows shortly thereafter. As technology advances within the country, the manufacture of finished goods – first textiles, then heavier goods – becomes a larger and larger part of national economic output, ideally helping to spur large-scale investments in infrastructure (although this is not always the case). At this manufacturing stage, production becomes mechanized to promote efficient working environments, frequently making use of external funds and export proceeds to stimulate investment and growth. As the economy grows, industry begins to diversify, with the general wealth of the nation increasing. With the growth of national wealth comes the creation of a consumer class, which becomes the driving force of the economy. Consumption of material goods by local citizens helps to strengthen manufacturing. However, the expansion of national wealth eventually brings with it a demand for services, which begin to displace manufacturing, leading to a greater reliance on imported goods. In this consumer-driven stage, the economy becomes focused on offering services that typically cannot be offered from other locations.

 

The UNDP will discuss the growing possibility of countries bypassing the manufacturing stage of development, and the greater frequency with which this takes place. Some nations have begun to take a different route to development that moves more directly from an agrarian system to a greater focus on offering services, relative to the production of manufacturing goods. Nations which have begun to focus on a service-driven economy may still engage in manufacturing, yet at a reduced scale, in favor of technical support or tourism. The poster child for this model is India, which moved into services – technical support in particular – earlier relative to its level of development than most industrialized nations did in the past. The prevalence of this system has increased as technological advancements have allowed outside countries to offer services that traditionally had to be offered locally. These industries include customer service phone lines, technical support, and tourism industries that can now be outsourced, thanks to advances in global communication and travel.

 

We must examine the ramifications of this new model. One should consider the demographic sectors that may be left behind without the spread of wealth offered by the manufacturing stage. Each delegate should bear in mind that the goal of the committee is to promote sustainable development for all nations by “focusing on opportunities to reduce poverty and marginalization in ways that are sustainable from economic, social, and environmental standpoints (UNDP).”In some cases, service industries are less likely to hire unskilled workers than manufacturing sectors, which means that unless educational attainment is broadly and evenly distributed throughout the population, bypassing manufacturing exacerbates social divisions between rich and poor. An absence or shortage of manufacturing employment could spur the creation of an unemployable underclass, forced into informal work and unable to share in the benefits of economic progress. On the other hand, a greater focus on services at the expense of manufacturing may moderate a country’s greenhouse emissions, which would be beneficial. Since this new development paradigm can have both positive and negative consequences, we must examine both, see if it is possible to offset the latter, and determine if proceeding directly to a service economy constitutes a viable path toward sustainable development.

  • IraqUNDP
    IraqUNDP November 13, 2017 Reply

    As a nation struggling to create and maintain stable economic development, Iraq is on the front lines when it comes to transitioning economies. Plagued by political instability and terrorist incursions Iraq has largely been unable to provide investors with a secure private market where investors can feel confident in their investments. The exception to this is Iraq’s oil industry, which has been a driving economic force for decades. Both Kurdish and Iraqi oil companies have both benefitted Iraq’s economy greatly, and one of Iraq’s key goals in the coming years is to safeguard and expand Iraqi oil production and exportation. With that being said, Iraq is also painfully aware of the unsustainability of oil markets, especially considering the recent extreme drop in oil prices.

    Despite instability in the oil markets, things are looking up for Iraq’s economy. Iraq entered into a Stand-By Agreement with the International Monetary Fund in 2016, with the IMF recently completing its second scheduled review. So far the IMF Executive board has found Iraq complied appropriately with the IMF, working to reduce money laundering and providing key anchors to the Iraqi dinar. With Daesh on the retreat Iraq and its Kurdish northern region are again gaining access to rich oil fields, which should hopefully counteract slowly rising oil prices. Along with the short-term benefits, the eventual expulsion of Daesh from Iraq will likely grant investors increased confidence in the safety and stability of Iraq private markets, spurring economic development in the nation. This economic development is severely needed, with an unemployment rate of approximately 16% in 2016. However, Iraq is wary of an immediate transition to a full service based economy, due to a 79% literacy rate and lack of widespread formal higher education in the country.

    Iraq looks forward with working with the committee and its fellow nations in order to facilitate and jumpstart stable and strong economic growth in the countries that need it the most. However, Iraq also wishes to remind all delegates that the decision on how to grow those nation’s economies should not be made for the nations, and instead those nations should be given the tools and abilities they need to facilitate the type of economic growth best for their economy and country. Namely, Iraq would like to see Stand-By Agreements and similar loan opportunities amended to include a seal of investment stability given by the IMF at the end of the agreement if the country complies with the IMF’s terms and conditions and the IMF agrees it has taken appropriate action and worked prevent future fiscal crises.

  • Ty77723
    Ty77723 November 13, 2017 Reply

    SUBMITTED TO: UNDP
    FROM: Tajikistan
    SUBJECT: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

    As Tajikistan begins to make progress as a developing nation, the discussion of bypassing the manufacturing stage of development is very relevant in Tajikistan. After Tajikistan’s independence in 1991 and civil war from 1992-1997, Tajikistan’s already hurt economy has had no easy time. As for agriculture, less than 7% of the land area is arable, Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food. Tajikistan industry consists mainly of small factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant.
    Tajikistan believes that this debate/discussion will be very important for Tajikistan and other nations to form a better plan for economic development that will best fit the needs of the country and its people. Since the end of the devastating, five-year civil war, Tajikistan has pursued reforms and privatizations, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam. Tajikistan is hopeful that developed nations will come to aid in this matter in formulating such plans of increasing many developing nations economy and overall development.
    This leaves multiple questions for the committee to answer. Is bypassing the manufacturing stage of development a viable option for developing nations to consider and or implement? Does bypass manufacturing negatively affect the people of a nation and their ability to provide for themselves and a family. What are the effects of bypass manufacturing on the environment and is it significant enough to change how we view the option of bypass manufacturing?
    Any good answer to these questions will be to help the development of countries that are reaching and will eventually reach this point in development. The committee must find the best ways for developing nations to reach their next steps to prosper. Third, the committee must find these answers with the thought of the people and the environment in constant mind. How this will happen requires further discussion in the committee, but these basic criteria must remain present in any sort of resolution.
    This committee provides a way to change how nations can develop in a more effective manner. Nations no longer have to follow the same pattern of development that they once did before, countries can formulate plans that will best fit theirs needs of development. Tajikistan looks forward to discussing how to find the best possible ways for nations to develop with the other countries in this committee, and reaching a positive and productive solution.

  • Faithschafer
    Faithschafer November 14, 2017 Reply

    Country: Portugal
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Faith Schafer
    School: Williamston High School

    The process of manufacturing is an important one that can lead to the development of nations into flourishing and powerful countries. The typical model of economic development includes a manufacturing stage, and while this stage increases the gross domestic product per capita quicker than other stages, it also causes a plateau as the country begins to demand finished goods from other countries, pushing out the built up manufacturing. Models that pass this manufacturing stage of development, like India, may not immediately grow as fast, but they do miss the plateau, and after a little while are able to grow as fast as countries who do go through this manufacturing stage. This brings up the controversial idea: is the manufacturing stage necessary? It is both a positive and a negative for each country that adopts it, and countries that are trying to develop as quickly as possible are trying to find ways to develop even more quickly for the benefit of their people, whether the country chooses to go through a manufacturing stage or a stage of development based on anything else, such as a STEM industry.
    Portugal has enjoyed economically prosperity as a country for most of their history, from the days when they were under Roman occupation to current times when their GDP has surpassed those of their most prosperous times in the past. As a country that has experienced all aspects of growth and development, Portugal supports countries in their decision to choose how they will develop, because that is how countries create a nation that is unique among all others: by choosing their own economic culture to live by. Portugal themselves has not bypasses the manufacturing process of development, being one of the largest textile exporters in Europe, and a center of the fashion industry, and they believe it has been and continues to be an important part of their development process and it has defined their country. This system worked for Portugal, but just because of that, it does not mean that it is right for everyone in every country.
    Portugal believes in the right of every country to choose and define their own development plan. There should not be a certain “test” that a country needs to pass to be considered developed, and each country truly is the best judge of what their country and people need. As a nation, Portugal believes manufacturing to be an important stage for each country to complete to be able to stand on their feet and be self-reliant, but a country that chooses to develop their economy around other means should not be left out and considered “developing” if their nation is able to be self-reliant, gives their people a good way of life and is able to support an economy. Portugal would be willing to support countries through monetary donations and economic support that choose to take on a different method to becoming a developed nation, even if it does not involve the manufacturing process several of the world’s most prominent countries have gone through. This could also be beneficial for the environment if countries adopt other methods as it could reduce the amount of emissions from countries that can not afford to invest in clean energy at such an early stage in their development. Portugal urges that UNDP and the United Nations work in policies to support a nation’s choice in the matter of how they will work towards total development, as it will create a larger and more diverse global economic culture and allow each country freedom and the ability to work with the needs of their people. Portugal suggests that the United Nations focus specifically on creating clean energy in manufacturing in all countries so that emissions spectrums can stay as long as possible while helping nations become developed.

  • Erinbowling12
    Erinbowling12 November 14, 2017 Reply

    Country: Burkina Faso
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Erin Bowling
    School: Williamston High School

    In our consumer driven world, there are appeals to bypassing the manufacturing stage of development in certain goods. In a few countries like India among others there can be great benefits easily seen in this new model. But with these benefits comes a cost. When you take away the manufacturing process you take away thousands of jobs and potentially harm an economy in vast ways. An absence or shortage of manufacturing employment could spur the creation of an unemployable underclass, forced into informal work and unable to share in the benefits of economic progress. Service industries are less likely to hire unskilled workers in manufacturing sectors, which means that unless educational attainment is broadly and evenly distributed throughout the population. In addition bypassing manufacturing exacerbates social divisions between rich and poor.
    As a newly democratic country Burkina Faso is solely focused on expanding our economy and making reparations to our nation greatly damaged by a totalitarian state. A new system like this would this would only reverse everything we have worked so hard to undo. With the majority of our country being so unpopulated, non-consumer driven, and un-industrialised, Bypassing manufacturing is a ridiculous thing to implement or even suggest. We are looking to create as many jobs as possible and increase our over all distribution of wealth.
    Our country’s economy flourishes on items like cotton and gold and raw materials in contrast to most new age countries in the world today who profit off of more manufactured goods. There can be a benefit in this system for other countries and companies in which they are allowed to skip a part of their process that is in some ways unnecessary and slows them down. Their goal is to produce goods and get them to the consumer as quickly as possible. In Burkina Faso we work more diligently in a different way, we work to harvest and extract certain goods to ship them off for them to be produced into more of a final product. If this were to be implemented in Burkina Faso we would not be able to continue in a prosperous way economically. Burkina Faso would not be able to function with companies skipping this step and just sees it as unnecessary and damaging. If another country could use this in a profitable way we see no reason for them not too. But globally it makes little to no sense. A select few countries like ourselves are needed in the industry world to produce raw materials and are considered a vital part to the process, but bypassing the manufacturing stage is only beneficial to few and should not be executed worldwide for centuries to come.

  • Hudsonyu
    Hudsonyu November 14, 2017 Reply

    Country: The Bolivian Republic of Venezuela
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Hudson Yu

    As technology and communication continue to develop, the idea of bypassing the manufacturing stage of development through new avenues has become more and more attractive. However, the principle behind this, comparative advantage, has been around since the early study of economics. When considering comparative advantage, actors that can perform an economic process at the lowest opportunity cost should be chosen to perform that task. In the case of outsourcing, developing nations tend to have cheaper input prices, primarily labor, than developed nations. So, outsourced jobs in either information technology or business processes can spur economic growth in developing nations and ameliorate business practices in developed nations.

    Yet this system also faces many pitfalls. The repercussions of economic recession in major players in the global economy can be felt internationally due to the linking of the global economy through trade and banking. If a large number of a country’s population relies on jobs contracted by companies in other nations, the consequences of an economic disaster could devastate developing economies. Additionally, employing younger workers to outsourced jobs that require little specialization can cause long term harm because it causes brain drain, which is to say that these individuals aren’t getting specialized educations which benefit developing nations in the long run.

    The economy of Venezuela is heavily export and manufacturing dependent, but is also an excellent prospect for foreign direct investment. Heavy industry products such as steel, aluminum and cement account for a major share of its exports, but its most important industry is oil. Venezuela’s bountiful oil reserves have helped in jumpstarting its economy, yet also exposed to targeting from its opponents. Saudi oil producers have in recent years, flooded the market with cheap oil. This is a calculated business move orchestrated by the United States and Saudi Arabia in an attempt to undercut their opponents. The conspiracy doesn’t end there. Venezuela is heavily import dependent for many consumer and medical products, and the international community has targeted this weakness. According to the Venezuelan Minister of Urban Agriculture, Freddy Bernal, the United States has been blocking imports of food, sanitation products and medicine by threatening boycotts against shipping companies. This economic war being waged against Venezuela must end, its citizens have felt the consequences of these politically motivated assaults of Venezuelan freedom.

    Foreign direct investment can also play a crucial role in economic development, and Venezuela has in recent years, become an excellent prospect for it. Privatized ports and airports make Venezuela an excellent contender for foreign direct investment because privatization can lead to increased tax revenue, efficiency, and the emergence of new economic sectors. In recent years, a new industry has risen as well- the agro-food industry. Producing products such as coffee, tropical fruits, rice, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks has increased Venezuela’s economic prosperity. This new industry is also quite attractive for investment.

    To encourage global economic activity, a few key actions must be taken. Growth in developing nations will begin when politically motivated economic warfare ends. As stated beforehand, Venezuela has felt the consequences of these practices firsthand. Aside from that outsourcing in certain industries can benefit developing economies, but the infrastructure required to jumpstart these industries is not present in many developing nations. In response, nations should pursue traditional routes of development, while focusing on infrastructure development, which will create jobs and improve living standards in general. In rapidly developing economies, funding can be realized through foreign direct investment, but in economies where growth has stagnated, this issue can be more daunting. Potential appeals to the International Monetary Fund, which supports the development efforts of its member countries and promotes global economic and financial stability, can also launch economic growth. While exploring paths of development, Venezuela hopes to find allies in China, Russia and Vietnam and Iran.

  • Avneetdeol
    Avneetdeol November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: The United States of America
    Delegate: Avneet Deol

    Productivity is the most important determinant of long-term growth; however, productivity has seemingly stagnated around the world. To keep up with the progressive movements of the rest of the world, countries are bolting to find contemporary methods to maintaining or growing their economies – which leads to sloppy development and infrastructure. According to Nikki Haley, countries like India leave their economies untapped. By leeching off of the service desires of developed countries like the United States, these countries are able to provide service jobs rather than producing products. However, according to The Economist, this leads to several unintended consequences. For example, productivity decreases and unequal distribution of wealth increases. Because these services have to be delivered in person, there is almost zero potential for the countries to reach economies of scale or to export. The most frightening problem is the lack of jobs. Modern services require skilled and affluent workers. Typically those people who do not have the necessary skills are left as casualties, jobless, in this race for development.

    The United States encourages that companies in countries that are lagging behind in respect to the rest of their country’s economy migrate to other countries that can support their interests. It is the country’s and people’s decision whether they chose to bypass the manufacturing stage of development. As of 2016, the United States has fostered and taken in six Indian companies that chose to set up business in the United States – such as QuEST Global Services NA, WNS Global Services, and Himatsingka America Inc.

    Although the USA recognizes that some developing nations have the ability to jump into service economies, this activity is not condoned by the United States of America for several reasons. For example, India’s leading software exporters were founded by engineers that were educated in America and who had returned home. Many other countries lack this advantage. The United States strives to ensure that the world has a functional and fortified economy and believes that without stepping into the depths of manufacturing, the people of the country will not receive the proper pillars of development: quality education, decent work, economic growth, industry, innovation, infrastructure, reduced inequalities, peace, justice, and strong institutions. Looking forward, the United States hopes to work with other countries to guide their efforts in development and to encourage developing countries to follow the strategies for effective development.

  • avatar image
    Jake Wilcox November 15, 2017 Reply

    Submitted to: UNDP
    From: The Republic of Cuba
    Subject: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

    The Republic of Cuba believes that the problems with not having manufacturing in your country outweigh the positives of having a service industry. Some of the problems with this type of industry is a lack of self sufficiency and dependence on private run companies to drive your industry’s. Cuba believes that a lack of manufacturing can not be sustainable. Having a service industry means that you must trade for resources that you would normally manufacture.
    But what if everyone does this? Then who will manufacture those crucial items? But is having a manufacturing based economy really the best solution either? Is having a service based industry really the best choice for having a sustainable industry? Are privately run service Industries dependable enough to run an economy?
    Cuba believes that the best path for development is a combination of both manufacturing as well as a service industry. Having both can allow a country to have the best of both ideas as well as allowing a country to be self reliable and not have to rely on other countries. Having your own industry can also prevent a situation where a crisis in one country can not cripple other countries. Cuba also believes that privately run industry’s are not reliable enough to truly run a economy. Cuba would put forth that governments should play a role in service industries to ensure quality to make them more sustainable. Overall Cuba believes that having both a service industry and a manufacturing industry is the best way to make a stable economy.

  • Roymorelloa90
    Roymorelloa90 November 15, 2017 Reply

    SUBMITTED TO: United Nations Development Programme
    FROM: Namibia
    SUBJECT: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

    Industry within an economy provides jobs, stability and infrastructure to civilizations, nations and governments. Namibia is fully aware that industry’s economic activity, concerned with processing raw materials and manufacturing goods in factories, make it the foundation of a country. What a country can import and exports correlates to its future stages in development. According to the CIA World Factbook, the gross world profit (GWP) from the gross national product of each country is approximately 107.5 trillion US dollars. Nominally, it totaled, approximately 78.28 trillion US dollars. These numbers directly relate to development, industry and production in countries. From an economic development standpoint, beginning with an agrarian system, most nations moved forward to focus on offering services in relations to production of manufactured goods. It is imperative for Namibia to utilize external funds and export proceeds to stimulate economic growth, production and become mechanicalized to promote efficiency.

    The Republic of Namibia’s economy is lightly industry based and is directly linked with the country’s agriculture sector. That includes meatpacking, fish processing and dairy processing. Namibian economics includes a modern market sector that is linked to a majority of the country’s wealth. As a whole, agriculture makes up 47% of Namibia’s economy, followed by services at 33% and industry at 20%. According to the Global Edge Namibia Trade Statistics from Michigan State University, 44.12% of Namibia’s GDP was from the exportation of goods and services in 2015. Rich in natural resources, Namibia exported a volume of 2,780,413,792 USD in 2015. The Namibian manufacturing sector is facing many challenges. Many civilians are being held back from becoming skilled workers, trained professionals or managers due to a lack of training, skills and education. In 2010, the Namibian Manufacturing Association labeled these issues as concerns for the economy and suggested that the government take action. Their suggestions included the National Export Strategy, Private Sector Development Strategy and the Foreign Direct Investment Act. Namibia is aggressively pursuing further education and the issue at hand while actively utilizing court donor assistance and foreign investment.

    The Republic of Namibia values development, success and growth but wonders how the UNDP committee will push towards a resolution inclusive to all country’s needs. To begin, representatives need to address how economies develop. Is it necessary to bypass the manufacturing stages or has this already been done? Even with success in certain sectors, how can countries work to balance the high-income inequality gaps? How can free market principles be used to promote commercial developments? What can be done to create more jobs to bring disadvantaged citizens into economic mainframes? Lastly, how should the international community approach funding and investment toward sustainable development?

    A structured resolution should hold the answers and form solutions to each problem within this topic. It should include, but isn’t limited to, finding the means to balance gaps in income inequality, acknowledge disadvantaged citizens previously excluded, and explain the means of funding. In all, these changes should not cost to the nation’s economy or increase the nation’s debt. Namibia will be satisfied with a resolution to this issue when balance is struck between the points listed above. Namibia is curious to hear what fellow delegates have to say and is eager to work with the international community to develop a resolution that pertains to the topic at hand.

    Sources:
    1. “Find Industry and Manufacturing Expertise in Namibia.” Common Wealth Network, Nexus, http://www.commonwealthofnations.org/sectors-namibia/business/industry_and_manufacturing/.
    2. Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 26 Mar. 2013, http://www.cia.gov/index.html.
    3. HARAMBEE PROSPERITY PLAN. 2016, pp. 1–84, HARAMBEE PROSPERITY PLAN.http://www.gov.na/documents/10181/264466/HPP+page+70-71.pdf/bc958f46-8f06-4c48-9307-773f242c9338
    4. REALIZING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Essays in the Commemoration of 25 Years of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights to Develop. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/RightDevelopmentInteractive_EN.pdf.
    5. “Namibia: Trade Statistics.” >> GlobalEDGE: Your Source for Global Business Knowledge, globaledge.msu.edu/countries/namibia/tradestats.

  • 21Talberev
    21Talberev November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Swaziland
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: EvaTalberg
    School: Williamston High School

    The most significant problem relating to the topic is that manufacturers are feeling pressure and being allowed to increase the speed and customer engagement. Manufacturers are building to suit individual orders rather than to stock their product. In this environment, intermediaries that create value by holding inventory are becoming less and less necessary. High tech manufacturers are also outsourcing their products to third party. These companies are hoping to avoid risks of investing in expensive manufacturing plants and losing sight of what they see as their true source of advantage – product research and development. Companies are bypassing the stop at warehouses for product development to cut the costs of shipping and satisfy their customers by allowing to give them their products sooner. Companies including sellers of food and drugs, are making great products but rushing through the trial and development stage of the process in order to get to their release faster.

    Swaziland would like to mention the fact that the main food most of the population consumes is grown by themselves and their families, so this problem does not directly impact most of Swaziland’s citizens. Although Swaziland exports canned fruit and flavoring for soft drinks, these products are not impacted by this problem because of their lack of complex manufacturing. Swaziland also exports raw sugar cane and citrus. As a member of the SACU, Swaziland´s main local trading partner is South Africa, and main world wide trading partners are the United States of America and the European Union.

    Swaziland believes that the best solution to the problem would be to require a certain amount of either time or amount of tests for new drugs that are being sold in pharmacys unless their is a severe breakout of a highly contagious disease. Technology should also be only sold by first party manufacturers rather than third party, cheaper, manufacturing companies, especially when potential defect or issue with a product could harm lives of the consumers.
    Another reason to require a given amount of test time could be to press down on the amount of recalls companies have to give to their buyers. Recalls are annoying for the consumers, and expensive to the companies selling the product.

  • Thomas-Hendricks
    Thomas-Hendricks November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: The United Nations Development Program
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

    Almost 80% of Pakistan’s economy is made of agriculture and services; the other 20% is made of our growing industry. Our services play the largest part in our GDP and we would like to increase the amount of service jobs that we have. However, Pakistan’s GDP is growing at a rate of 4.5% annually as our industry grows. We are clearly not skipping the manufacturing stage of development as our industry grows at 5.8% every year (38th in the world). Any growth in GDP is good for our country but we would rather focus on the service section of our economy. At the moment, 35% of our work force accounts for our services. Our services account for 56% of our GDP. In a perfect world where our entire workforce is dedicated to services our GDP could increase by 60%. Our goal, of course, is not to be a service-only economy but rather to increase the service sector of our workforce to increase our GDP in total. However, our industry is growing faster than our services which works against our goal. We need assistance from our allies to increase our service sector of our economy.
    Pakistan believes that it is crucial for us to find a way to increase the workforce in the service sector in developing countries to encourage the growth of our GDP. The People’s Republic of China has 41% of its workforce working in services. Services also account for the largest portion of their GDP. As large economic allies, we believe that more economies, including our own, should be based on China’s. China still has a sufficient part of their economy based in agriculture and industry which is always safe, but it also has most of its economy based in services which seems to be working well. Pakistan believes that by increasing the manufacturing stage of development, individuals countries’ economies around the world will grow, and thus increase the general welfare of the total world population.

  • avatar image
    Matt Hummel November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    In the economic development of a country, manufacturing often is developed as a platform upon which further growth is based. The prosperity created by the export and exchange of finished products is applied to education, technologies, and the development of other industries. In some cases, however, countries have chosen to skip the manufacturing stage, and develop industries based on natural resources or higher education training instead. This choice holds the potential benefits of eliminating manufacturing waste and a strong widespread industry, but also eliminates job availability to lower income groups and increases the gap between higher and lower classes.

    After the development of political stability, Vietnam has chosen to pursue manufacturing as a primary industry. The fiscal benefits of Vietnam’s decision have been remarkable, and lead to the hastened development of the nation as a whole. Since 1990, the beginning of the manufacturing industry boom in Vietnam, Vietnam’s per capita GDP has increased from 206 USD to 2,185 USD, effectively increasing by over ten times. This increase was also found in Vietnam’s PPP, demonstrating the effectiveness of the manufacturing industry in increasing the quality of life for citizens. This strong economic base offers a platform upon which other industries have developed in Vietnam, due to the natural progression of industries in the light of economic growth. The strength of the manufacturing industry in Vietnam has also provided widespread availability of unskilled jobs positions, and benefited Vietnam’s lower class while closing the class gap. The increased availability of wealth to all classes allows for greater pursuit of higher education, granting greater opportunities to all citizens as well as to developing industries in fields that may require higher education. This benefit may be frequently lost by nations who choose to pursue bypassing the manufacturing stage of development.

    Although Vietnam recognizes the choice of many countries to bypass the manufacturing stage of economic development, Vietnam promotes manufacturing development as a means of economic growth to all countries. In the experiences of Vietnam and many others, the manufacturing stage offers greater economic stability and growth to develop an economy which fosters the growth of all industries, including services, as well as offering jobs to unskilled workers and lower class individuals to create an environment of opportunity and greater economic equality. The promotion of all these benefits should be of an utmost priority to all nations, especially those whose economies are still developing.

  • Abbiemorrow
    Abbiemorrow November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Republic of Turkey
    Abigail Morrow

    As technology advances, the manufacture of finished goods becomes a larger part of economic output, ideally helping to spur large-scale investments in infrastructure. Consumption of material goods by local citizens assists strengthening manufacturing. The expansion of national wealth eventually leads to a demand for services, which can replace manufacturing, leaving a reliance on imports. In this consumer driven stage, the economy focuses on services that cannot be provided elsewhere. Some countries, like the Republic of India, are moving directly from an agrarian system to a service based economy. There are both challenges and advantages in bypassing the manufacturing stage. The spread of wealth and jobs for the middle and lower classes offered by the manufacturing stage is very important in many countries. The Republic of Turkey would like to focus on ways to reduce poverty and marginalization while ensuring economic, social, and environmental stability. The manufacturing stage is important to the health of an economy not only because it guarantees jobs for the middle class but also stabilizes the economy. Turkey strives to take action on the pollution caused by manufacturing and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Manufacturing contributes to 22% of Turkey’s economy. The manufacture of textiles is Turkey’s largest industry. This industry of labor creates 25.6 million jobs; this is a benefit of manufacturing. Due to the textile industry, Turkey has the twenty-fifth largest export economy in the world. Although many manufacturing jobs do exist in Turkey, the unemployment rate today is 11.23%. Socialist alternatives in Turkey stand for unity of the social class by striving to provide manufacturing jobs. This creates many jobs for all citizens and helps reduce wage gap. Although, Turkey supports manufacturing, we also recognize the need to reduce pollution with the goal of preventing climate change. In 2016, Turkey submitted a greenhouse reductions target to its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution.

    The Republic of Turkey recommends the United Nations discourage countries from circumventing the manufacturing stage considering that middle class jobs are very important in able to stabilize economies. This stage is important to Turkey because textiles are our most important industry. Turkey encourages the United Nations to aim for prevention from manufacturing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. These pollutants are hurting the climate and causing global warming. Turkey proposes the United Nations encourage countries to avoid bypassing the manufacturing stage of development because it will end many jobs. Turkey urges that any resolution within the United Nations Development Programme on this topic consist of regulations for reducing pollutants and orders to maintain manufacturing in developing countries.

  • Markw0926
    Markw0926 November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Israel
    Mark Wassink

    Countries have opportunities to steer the direction of their economy. Many countries, such as India, are trying to skip the manufacturing stage of development, directly into a service industry. Whether this policy will guide India into a stage of economic growth is unknown. While skipping the manufacturing stage of development may seem like an easy way to quickly catapult a country to prosperity, it should be noted that there are risks with every major policy change. Whether a service based economy would be viable should also be considered. Most service based jobs depend on a solid base of wealth where there is a use for these jobs; there needs to be a solid financial base. Countries that wish to base their economy on services must have a solid financial base, or else there is no market for the jobs, so no jobs result from the shift. For example, if a highly impoverished nation were to build a hotel, a service based job, then nobody would go to the hotel, so the jobs and the wealth from this hotel would cease to exist; it would not work. An influx of investment could help accomplish servitization as many service jobs result from this. It is important to consider the factors that affect economic growth and apply them to the situation of the country in question. Much of technological advancement results from investment as well, stressing how crucial it is to have rule of law, and protection of these investments. Countries that base their economy on services also need manufactured goods, which they generally receive from trade. With these factors considered, countries should also keep the environment in mind, and each country should have sensible solutions that do not harm the environment. Climate change can result in flooding, making farming land near the equator less arable, making ice melt near the polar ice caps, among other things.

    Israel will not bypass the manufacturing stage of development, for Israel is already developed; however, the topic at hand largely affects Israel because Israel is affected by the health of the whole world. Israel wishes that each country takes steps towards solutions that are not nearsighted or harmful. Many of Israel’s trading partners are in the manufacturing stage of development, and Israel believes that both countries benefit in a mutual relationship. Although, the benefits may be beneficial, Israel recognizes the sovereignty of many of its neighbors. Each state may act in its best interests so long as they do not harm other nations. Firing rockets into another country, however, would harm other nations. This would require a response. In regards to climate change, Israel is a party of the Paris Climate Agreement, as well as a signatory. Israel also supports actions for clean energy. Israel has nuclear power which is a cleaner alternative that can be used in place of fossil fuels that emit carbon dioxide. These steps to prevent climate change will help prevent the damaging consequences of climate change.

    Israel recognizes the sovereignty of many of its trading partners and wishes that the UNDP will uphold the sovereignty of many of its trading partners, but not groups governed by terrorist organizations, such as Hamas and Hezbollah. Any countries that ally with these terrorist groups should be dealt with in the same manner. These terrorist groups prevent development and prevent others from achieving a solid manufacturing base that will inevitably turn into an information based economy. Israel wishes that the UNDP would also help control climate change, noting how its neighbor Syria has not signed the Paris Climate Agreement. Israel would like to see the UNDP take actions against climate change and uphold state sovereignty of legitimate nations.

  • Tremple
    Tremple November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Russian Federation
    Committee: United Nations Development Programme
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    School: Royal Oak High School
    Delegate: Collin Sharpe

    For most of the history of development economics, our idea of what makes healthy development remained confined to a linear set of stages. An agrarian economy must move to an industrial model, which then moves to an economy led by services. Now, alternative patterns, appear completely contrary to the classical model, are appearing in places like India. It seemed that this “service revolution” would completely undermine the model of development we’d always used before. But once the optimism had faded, and we could examine exactly what a service-led economy without a preceding industrial base looks like, we began to see the limits of what this model can do on its own. There is more than one model of development, and service-led growth is one of them. But it cannot be sustainable, and it cannot reach the people, if a service economy does not have enough economic diversity to do the things services cannot.

    Russia’s own experience has shown it the problems of economic homogeneity. By and large, its economy has relied on energy exports and other commodities for many years. It has been working since 2007 to rid itself of this dependence, which has caused economic instability and severely reduced growth each time the prices of these commodities lower significantly. To this end, it has started to invest in manufacturing and developing high technology, but as a developing country that has only recently come out of a centralized economic system, it does not have adequate domestic capital to invest in itself in a way that will reach these goals in a reasonable time. Other developing economies, which would benefit greatly from a manufacturing sector but don’t have the capital to develop one, are in much the same boat. Services seemed to be the alternative for the “bottom billion” but the many problems with services led growth (Baumol’s “cost disease”, a limited amount of employment that is further limited to high-skilled labor, and an inability to satisfy basic domestic needs are but a few) make it unsustainable and impractical for social development. Manufacturing may not need to precede services, but it is necessary to work alongside them for sustainable development.

    Given the many benefits, but also many flaws, of services-led growth, what should the international community say about their viability? How can we make up for the drawbacks of economies that are too dependent on a single industry?

    The first question is fairly easy to answer, given the facts of the topic. A model of development led by services is only sustainable when it is not dependent on them. Service industries have many problems that are unmet by homogeneous economies. Manufacturing is necessary to provide a way for large numbers of low and medium skilled workers to be in highly productive positions and satisfy domestic demand with a country’s own economy. Service-led growth must be accompanied by manufacturing to be sustainable and provide for social development. The second question is more difficult to address. Of course, governments are responsible for their own development, but the realities of today’s interdependent global economy mean that investment from outside a country’s borders is required for development. In some way, more investment must be directed towards developing manufacturing sectors in countries that are not economically diversified. We must also work to remove obstacles to a favorable investment climate, sanctions as a political tool being but one example. Of course, any plan must be inclusive, be based on mutual respect. It must include any country willing to accept help in developing, and demand nothing of any country that does.

    Too often, issues discussed in the United Nations are saturated with antagonism. Development is refreshingly different. This is an area where all nations of all types can discuss issues and formulate policy without the mudslinging and accusations that usually accompany debate. Russia looks forward to working with a committee operating as it should be, with every country collaborating together, which each perspective coming together towards a better collective future.

  • Sbenscoter012
    Sbenscoter012 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: The People’s Republic of China
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Seth Benscoter

    The progression of economic development seen most often throughout modern history has included three primary steps: agriculture, manufacturing, and the creation of a consumer class. However, recent years have proven that this progression is not the only means by which a nation may develop its economy. Instead, nations such as India are leaders in bypassing the manufacturing stage of development, moving instead to the offering of service and technological jobs.

    With regard to this topic, the People’s Republic of China finds itself in a unique position. As an immense contributor to the overall global market, China is familiar with aspects of the final stages of economic development. At the same time, the nation and its fellow Asian nations are in the midst of the manufacturing stage. For China, the ability to manufacture both pieces and finished products has greatly benefited the economy, causing a approximately 10% increase in GDP between 1978 and 2013. And though the nation’s economy has slowed in its rapid growth, manufacturing is and will remain a viable option for the People’s Republic of China, as well as for its Association of Southeast Asian Nation allies.

    China does recognize, however, that each nation has the sovereign right to choose the method of economic development it believes is best, and thus China urges countries of this nature to carefully consider both options. Research into the “Bypassing Manufacturing” notion has shown that perhaps, in the 21st century, this form of economic development is exactly what the global community needs; moreover, this method prevents additional damage to the environment, something China and other members of the Paris Climate Agreement care deeply about.

    In short, the People’s Republic of China looks forward to to work with like-minded nations to create guidelines for this alternate form of economic development, ensuring that sovereignty is maintained. We will ensure any nation that chooses such a path will find economic success and will be perfectly capable of trading with other nations on the global market.

  • avatar image
    Kyle November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Plurinational State of Bolivia
    Kyle Korte

    The typical model of economic development begins with agriculture, and as technology advances, a manufacturing sector emerges. The manufacturing stage provides to develop infrastructure, yet can harm the environment through greenhouse emissions. However, the manufacturing stage also provides job opportunities. A greater frequency of countries have been bypassing the manufacturing stage of development, the most prominent example being India. Bypassing this stage can promote a healthier environment and focus an economy on the services sector of a country’s economy, a sector that, in some countries, may prove to be more successful and vital to a country’s economy than the manufacturing sector. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals include goals such as No Poverty (SDG 1), Decent Work and Economic Growth (SDG 8), Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure (SDG 9), Sustainable Cities and Communities (SDG 11), and Climate Action (SDG 13). All of these SDG’s, and more, are directly impacted by the manufacturing stage.

    Bolivia has a relatively underdeveloped manufacturing sector that makes up 38.5% of the county’s GDP, comparatively, services makes up 53.8%. Thus, we support reduced manufacturing in favor of tourism, a large providing factor of our services sector. The environment is vital to our tourism, therefore we favor a small manufacturing sector as to avoid long term greenhouse emission damage from large manufacturing sectors. Our signing of the Paris Agreement demonstrates our support for the protection of the environment. We realize that bypassing the manufacturing stage may deter the the spread of wealth and educated underclass that is spurred by the manufacturing sector. In order to make up for the lack of distribution of wealth, Bolivia has installed policies in the Institutional Strategic Plan of 2017-2020 that lead Bolivia towards the New Economic and Social Productive Model, which promotes the redistribution of wealth. The United Nations Development Programme continues to support Bolivia’s education through the Dynamic Businesses Programme. This programme gives support to entrepreneurs that provide education to Bolivians. However, this level of redistribution and education, although supported by previously mentioned policies, would not have been achieved without the little manufacturing we have Ultimately, Bolivia realizes that the manufacturing stage can be vital to a country’s infrastructure, but does not have to be large. Thus, countries should not completely bypass the manufacturing stage, but rather develop a small manufacturing sector if their economy is dependant on the service sector.

    Bolivia proposes that the UN should put its support behind a healthy environment, enforcing Sustainable Development Goals 13, 14, and 15. In addition, the UN should enforce education, therefore creating an educated workforce for every country, outlined by SDG 4. Service industries are less likely to hire unskilled workers, thus higher education would lead to lower unemployment rates, and therefore lower poverty rates. The UN should recognize that each country requires a unique economic composition in order to function at maximum efficiency with the highest output. Bolivia suggests that the UN asks countries to propose to bypass the manufacturing stage and from there, UN should monitor the country’s economy and give suggestions to that country based on the diagnosis.

    • Kylekorte
      Kylekorte November 15, 2017 Reply

      United Nations Development Programme
      Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
      Plurinational State of Bolivia
      Kyle Korte

      The typical model of economic development begins with agriculture, and as technology advances, a manufacturing sector emerges. The manufacturing stage provides to develop infrastructure, yet can harm the environment through greenhouse emissions. However, the manufacturing stage also provides job opportunities. A greater frequency of countries have been bypassing the manufacturing stage of development, the most prominent example being India. Bypassing this stage can promote a healthier environment and focus an economy on the services sector of a country’s economy, a sector that, in some countries, may prove to be more successful and vital to a country’s economy than the manufacturing sector. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals include goals such as No Poverty (SDG 1), Decent Work and Economic Growth (SDG 8), Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure (SDG 9), Sustainable Cities and Communities (SDG 11), and Climate Action (SDG 13). All of these SDG’s, and more, are directly impacted by the manufacturing stage.

      Bolivia has a relatively underdeveloped manufacturing sector that makes up 38.5% of the county’s GDP, comparatively, services makes up 53.8%. Thus, we support reduced manufacturing in favor of tourism, a large providing factor of our services sector. The environment is vital to our tourism, therefore we favor a small manufacturing sector as to avoid long term greenhouse emission damage from large manufacturing sectors. Our signing of the Paris Agreement demonstrates our support for the protection of the environment. We realize that bypassing the manufacturing stage may deter the the spread of wealth and educated underclass that is spurred by the manufacturing sector. In order to make up for the lack of distribution of wealth, Bolivia has installed policies in the Institutional Strategic Plan of 2017-2020 that lead Bolivia towards the New Economic and Social Productive Model, which promotes the redistribution of wealth. The United Nations Development Programme continues to support Bolivia’s education through the Dynamic Businesses Programme. This programme gives support to entrepreneurs that provide education to Bolivians. However, this level of redistribution and education, although supported by previously mentioned policies, would not have been achieved without the little manufacturing we have Ultimately, Bolivia realizes that the manufacturing stage can be vital to a country’s infrastructure, but does not have to be large. Thus, countries should not completely bypass the manufacturing stage, but rather develop a small manufacturing sector if their economy is dependant on the service sector.

      Bolivia proposes that the UN should put its support behind a healthy environment, enforcing Sustainable Development Goals 13, 14, and 15. In addition, the UN should enforce education, therefore creating an educated workforce for every country, outlined by SDG 4. Service industries are less likely to hire unskilled workers, thus higher education would lead to lower unemployment rates, and therefore lower poverty rates. The UN should recognize that each country requires a unique economic composition in order to function at maximum efficiency with the highest output. Bolivia suggests that the UN asks countries to propose to bypass the manufacturing stage and from there, UN should monitor the country’s economy and give suggestions to that country based on the diagnosis.

  • ClaireP
    ClaireP November 15, 2017 Reply

    One of the greatest focuses of the United Nations is sustainable development. This is so central to the UNDP that it is not just one of our goals; it is all of them. With our goals explicitly labels “Sustainable Development Goals”, it is essential that any event with the potential to affect sustainability be discussed by the UN. One such event has recently been noticed: countries have begun to bypass the manufacturing stage of development. Instead of following the normal economic path from agriculture to manufacturing to services, some countries have begun to shift immediately from a focus on agriculture to a service economy. One example is India, whose economy shifted from a more agricultural focus to services such as technological support. Other countries, such as Uganda, have an economy more focused on tourism, leading to services making up a large portion of the economy without the country first passing through a manufacturing stage. This new economic process is largely based on increased globalization due to relatively recent technological advances, which allow for long-distance travel and communication. Although there may be drawbacks to this form of economic development, such as a potential to encourage social divisions due to polarization between skilled and unskilled workers, the possible benefits include increased global sustainability due to a decrease in carbon emissions. As many of the UNDP’s sustainable development goals, such as SDG 9, which focuses on creating sustainable industries, can be applied to this issue, it is essential that the UN discuss this new form of economic development.

    Uganda has recently begun to shift away from an agricultural society to a more service-based economy. The share of agriculture in our GDP decreased from over 70 percent in 1980 to about 25 percent in 2016. In contrast, the share of services more than doubled, increasing from under 25 percent to over 50 percent in the same time period due to an increased focus on tourism. Although manufacturing makes up around 20 percent of Uganda’s GDP, a much smaller amount in comparison to services and agriculture. It is clear that Uganda is most likely bypassing the manufacturing stage of development, but we have continued to maintain some sort of manufacturing industry. In fact, Uganda’s National Development Plan urges an increase in the manufacturing sector, and through it the government has created policies to tackle challenges in the path of growth in Uganda’s industry such as a lack of information and standardization. In addition, Uganda has made progress in recent years toward a more sustainable economy, working with the help of the UNDP to create sustainable economic development. For example, Uganda has been participating in SWITCH Africa Green, a program encouraging green economic development in African countries such as Uganda. Activities such as this and other UNDP programs have helped and will continue to help encourage sustainable economic development within Uganda’s tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture sectors. As one of the many countries who signed the Paris Agreement, Uganda believes that global environmental sustainability is essential, and if bypassing the manufacturing stage has the potential to decrease global carbon emissions we hope countries will continue to follow this path of economic development.

    Uganda proposes that the United Nations focus on how bypassing the manufacturing stage of development affects global sustainability and the individual country’s economic development. While discussing the benefits and drawbacks of this economic path it is essential that the UN remembers our goal of sustainable growth, both economically and environmentally. Although we largely support countries that bypass manufacturing, Uganda recommends that countries are encouraged to maintain a developing manufacturing industry, as this may help prevent any yet-unknown drawbacks to this form of economic development. A resolution that advocates for green economic growth and aids sustainable development within all countries will help fulfill the goals of the UNDP.

  • Nolan_Ott
    Nolan_Ott November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: United Nations Development Program
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Delegate: Nolan Ott

    Having an oil based economy, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a large separation of wealth throughout the country. Currently, a plan called Vision 2030 will work toward creating a broader economic base which would allow for more jobs at all levels. This would mean creating a manufacturing sector of the country.
    Skipping over the manufacturing stage of a developing country can have numerous benefits for a country, including avoiding environmental issues created by manufacturing, but The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia recognizes the importance of having the manufacturing stage in developing a country. The manufacturing stage can be vital to preventing the creation of a large separation between classes of wealth because manufacturing creates jobs for unskilled workers. Without this stage, countries can suffer having a large class of unemployable workers. For countries that do not wish to surpass the manufacturing stage, a resolution cannot be passed that enforces the skipping of the manufacturing stage of development.

  • Amanda
    Amanda November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Canada
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Amanda Jaworsky

    The manufacturing stage has, so far, been an important force in the creation of developed and industrialized nations, but recently it has become clear that this is not perhaps the best way to spur such development. One benefit to passing through this stage is that it allows a large increase in cash flow immediately after its development, and once the manufacturing has begun the country starts to generate large amounts of revenue. However, this process then causes a plateau, which may be more harmful than the initial economic boost that the manufacturing stage provides. One country that has been able to avoid this process is India, and looking to their development it is possible to mimic that in other countries who wish to bypass the manufacturing stage.
    When Canada was experiencing growth and development in the mid 1800s their development followed the typical path and going through the manufacturing stage. However, they too experienced the aforementioned problems with this model of development, and therefore see the merit in bypassing such a stage. Canada believes that, due to the quantity of very diverse countries out there, it is important for countries themselves to choose what sort of development to follow in their quest to become developed. They also recognize that times are changing, and along with them economic trends leading to success. Canada sees that it is important for countries to adapt to new and changing economic tides, especially developing nations.
    Canada suggests that countries wishing to become more developed take a look at other economic models set by countries like India, which would follow a new path, or follow a well-traveled economic route. However, Canada stresses the importance of countries making their own decisions that would best benefit them. One way to bypass this manufacturing stage is through building an economy on services and tourism. For countries struggling to build up a strong enough manufacturing system, building one instead on tourism or a simple service is a much more sustainable way to develop, as this is something that won’t hit a plateau or be displaced. One way to make this easier is to form an economic guidance committee, which would help developing countries assess their economic systems and wisely choose a form of development, whether it be through building an economy on services and tourism or otherwise.

  • Taylorpotter
    Taylorpotter November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    The Republic of Honduras
    Taylor Potter

    Countries have started to head directly towards a service driven economy instead of relying on manufacturing. More and more countries are beginning to discuss the growing effects that manufacturing has on the economy, and starting to offer solutions to offset the harm done. Industrial pollution is a primary source of environmental contamination. According to the Environmental Protection Agency air pollution levels have rose eighteen percent from 1990 to 2008. The growing effects on the economy has sparked a debate about bypassing the manufacturing stage of development. Nations have already started relying on manufacturing less and beginning to head towards a service driven economy. The new developing technology has allowed outside nations to provide services that before have only been provided from local sources. The United Nations must determine the necessary action to reduce the growing effect manufacturing has on the environment.

    Air pollution is a sizeable problem in Honduras. With the urbanization of cities such as Tegucigalpa the air pollution has started to rise at a frightening rate. A study by Honduras’s Center of Pollution has found that Honduras has exceeded The World Health Organization’s air-quality guidelines. We have addressed this issue by enforcing regulation for the control of emissions from stationary sources which sets limits on industry to protect the environment. As well as creating the renewable energy law and sustainable energy action plan to try and encourage the growth of renewable sources that do not harm the environment. Honduras has also given large industries a tax incentive for clean production and installation of pollution prevention technologies. Honduras believes that air pollution from manufacturing is a substantial problem that needs to be addressed. The UN needs to lessen the reliance countries have on manufacturing, and start directing developing countries towards a more service driven market. That would not only help the environment significantly, but will help people in poverty providing them higher paying jobs in the service field.

    Honduras proposes that the UN starts by getting an accurate prediction of the problem by taking a detailed emissions inventory of all the major cities with inaccurate data. The next step would be to establish a universal alert plan to manage the high air pollution levels. The UN should also promote service driven economies to developing nations to help steer away from the typical economic development process. This would not cut all manufacturing, but would reduce the reliance on it. A resolution that advocates for creating guidelines to protect the environment and nations will help lead towards the goal of sustainable development.

  • Ryansneider
    Ryansneider November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee- UNDP
    Country- Algeria
    Topic- Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Ryan Sneider

    The history of bypassing the manufacturing stage of development is a series of development from agriculture to manufacturing and industry. As technology advances in a country, its exports become more of a driving force in the economy. The growing economy creates a consumer class, which in turn needs services provided, which makes manufacturing irrelevant.
    In Algeria we have never had a large agricultural base, as only 3% of the land is suitable for farming, where wheat and barley is grown along our northern coastline. This farming, along with herding in the southern mountainous region, make up most of the food production in the country. Other food was imported from France after Algeria’s independence. Algeria’s history of manufacturing has been 90% hydrocarbons, with oil exports taking up most of the rest. This makes the economy very undiversified, as it transitioned from an agrarian economy to manufacturing economy in a short amount of time.
    We as a country believe that to move past the manufacturing stage of development would be harmful to our country. Our economy is based mostly on exports, and the diversification of a non manufacturing economy would destroy the economy’s income. This is why Algeria goes against the passing of the manufacturing stage of development.

  • Lexieleona
    Lexieleona November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    The Republic of Chile
    Alexis Jones

    While manufacturing seems to be the most efficient means of production, Chile, with only 12% of manufacture in total of GDP, proves that a country does not necessarily need to be dependant on manufacturing as a primary route production to become developed. Countries with various terrain hold advantages in their agriculture production such as Chile, and countries with lack of sustainable agriculture can benefit from services as Chile has. As a country with heavy resources, reliant on aquaculture and agriculture, exports and services account for a third of our GDP. Though Chile does benefit from some means of manufacturing, Chile recognizes other sectors as major importances to foreign policy, particularly in the service sector.
    Chile supports the use of agriculture, aquaculture, and the providence of services to other countries, being our largest focus on exports. The means of manufacturing are important, but it is not necessary. As a high income Latin American country, we hope to pursue and aid other Latin American countries to follow our route of alternative industry, and if not possible, the minimal exploitation of manufacturing could be beneficial to other countries. The issue is the expansion of manufacturing that inevitably creates far worse issues for a developing economy than income gaps.

  • JPPalacios
    JPPalacios November 15, 2017 Reply

    With a GDP of $473.4 billion and a 4.1% growth rate, the economy of the Kingdom of Sweden performs well and promotes open-market policies, which in turn, sustain flexibility, competitiveness, and vast amounts of trade and investment. Coupled with transparency and efficient regulatory policies, legal systems provide a strong protection for property rights. Although the country heavily invests in social spending, business efficiency counterbalances those shortcomings. Sweden’s Economic forecast summary for June of 2017 indicated decreased growth, however, “…the gains from globalization are shared through extensive public services and redistribution”(Organization For Economic Co-operation And Development).
    Sweden’s economy had multiple stages of development. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the economy primarily focused on a guild system which mandated the process in which resources and manufactured goods were distributed. After industrialization, the economy ushered an age of positive growth. In an age where economies have either merged or become massively intertwined, the stability of those markets is crucial for further developments. In order to maintain their vitality, countries must come together and assist one another in times of crisis.
    The Kingdom of Sweden will continue to advocate for development assistance in accord with our standing policies. Today, we push the principles of cooperation: “Sweden has traditionally put the strong emphasis on development assistance not the least to LDCs. Our Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) amounts to 0,7% of GNP and is growing. This makes Sweden one of the world’s largest donors of development assistance if counted as GNP per capita.” (Sweden & International Organizations in Geneva). The Kingdom of Sweden believes that a nation must have policies that reflect a high level of comfort with open markets and trade. For those nations in which their current state do not allow for such conditions, the economic community must address those issues.
    The Kingdom of Sweden is an open and export-oriented economy; it believes in the principles of trade through multilateral trading through the WTO. It believes that through adequate negotiations on trade, members of the WTO-which would benefit the least-developed countries would gain from open, fair and legitimate trade rules that also brings attention to their needs and priorities. The promotion of global markets is crucial in helping developing nations become a service based economy such as India. The transition from isolated to global economies will leave behind countries but in the time of globalization, it is important to understand the process in which we help developing countries establish their economies. For example, in the Central African Republic, business models have been virtually leapfrogged as the mobile phone provided the citizens with alternative services rather than the traditional method of phone companies. Other means of switching over to a sustainable energy source is hydropower which would provide services and develop many countries in Africa with renewable energy. Since the price of solar panels has decreased by 80% from 2010 to 2015, distribution and connectivity may be a realistic approach to solving the millions of people who are without access to electricity. Ultimately, the transformation into a service based economy will lead into an innovative society and one in which the Kingdom of Sweden will help to create for developing nations.

    • JPPalacios
      JPPalacios November 15, 2017 Reply

      Committee: United Nations Development Program
      Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
      Country: The Kingdom of Sweden
      Delegate: Juan Paulo Palacios

  • Luand9
    Luand9 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Commie: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: Australia
    Andrew Lu

    As a country’s economic sector grows, it passes through multiple sages of development. One of these stages is the manufacturing and development stage where he country’s main economic revenue comes from the production and exporting of goods to other countries. Examples include the industrial revolution in America during the early to mid 1900’s and he manufacturing economy of China currently. Following the manufacturing stage, the economy usually flows into a consumer-driven stage. One where services that can not be offered in other places are given in exchange for money. This includes tourism, or technological support to name a few. With technology connecting countries internationally, it is now possible for some o bypass the manufacturing stage of economic development and jump to the consumer-driven stage. It is up to the United Nations to determine a guideline for developing countries on whether they should choose to bypass this manufacturing stage of development.

    This has both advantages and drawbacks as it reduces pollution and green house emissions within a country, however it also creates a gap between the rich and poor as education or specialization is required for someone to work in a service based economy. The country of Australia recognizes these risks and drawbacks and would like other countries to consider carefully the full picture of what bypassing the manufacturing stage of development means for both the country and the international economy. The country of Australia would like to stress the environmental benefits for bypassing the manufacturing stage of development and the impacts it would have on the climate and atmosphere. The rising of greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized countries are at a far greater rate than those who have passed the manufacturing stage of development. Australia, a signer of the Kyoto protocol which commits its parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets, wishes to minimize the damages manufacturing has on climate change.

    The country of Australia would like to urge others to bypass the manufacturing stage of development and in doing so, affirm that the citizens of that country are educated and able to work in a service based economy. With the bypass, education programs should receive reworkings to keep up with the change in economy. Specialization and skills must be taught to its citizens in order for the process to occur without a large gap in rich and poor. Bypassing the manufacturing stage of development would greatly impact the environment by reducing greenhouse emissions. With a strong educational system, countries should not have many problems bypassing the manufacturing stage. Australia would like to propose for developed nations to help fund this education reworking in developing countries that wish to bypass the manufacturing process and in doing so help the climate and provide economic progress to other countries.

  • avatar image
    Kilian Guensche November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: Development Programme
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: Czech Republic
    Delegate: Kilian Guensche

    As has been the case in most nations prior to the information age, economic development has followed a standard path with agrarian beginnings, an industrial middle, and an economically diversified end. With the modern awakening of sleeping giants such as India and Indonesia, this process of economic development has seen a dramatic shift in its succession. The question then becomes whether or not we as a global community should encourage this new change in economic development. Currently, Czech law protects the rights of laborers to work in any capacity they choose without governmental instruction. And although the Czech government’s laissez faire approach to the division of labor does little to quell income inequality or an exploding service sector, it has nonetheless led to the lowest unemployment in Europe (2.7%), the 7th most complex economy worldwide, and a 4.7% growth rate. Keeping these things in mind, the Czech Republic supports any measure to reduce government overreach into economic matters.

    Reducing poverty and putting the economy on an eco-friendly path has always been a particular concern in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic has signed on and continues to adhere to the Paris Climate Agreement in pursuit of a more environmentally sustainable economy. The Czech Republic also works to protect the environment by levying a “road tax” on vehicles used for business purposes as well as an “energy tax” on supplies of electricity, natural gas, and solid fuel. In the interest of fighting poverty, the Czech government mandates that workers be paid a minimum of 59.15 Czech Koruna per hour of work. Such policies, despite having no direct influence on the development of the Czech Republic’s service industry, have done nothing but good for the Czech economy, as evidenced by the stunningly low unemployment, the economy’s astounding complexity, and the staggering growth rate mentioned above.

    Simply put, the Czech Republic believes in the power of the free market. The issue of skipping the manufacturing stage of development is hardly an issue that necessitates action from the international community. The Czech Republic will support any measure put forth by the UN that empowers the invisible hand of a nation’s free market. Such measures will ensure any economy’s eventual stabilization and sustainability, as they have in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic will also support any measures to encourage nations to implement minimum wages to address poverty and income inequality within their borders. The Czech Republic is very fortunate to enjoy a booming economy, and looks forward to bring similar fortune to other nations across the globe.

  • Simsandhu9
    Simsandhu9 November 15, 2017 Reply

    SUBMITTED TO: United Nations Development Programme
    FROM: Argentina
    SUBJECT: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Industries in an economy help provide Argentina’s economy heavily relies on services, accounting for over than 60% of the economy. Services offers multitude of jobs and shy away from the green house gases released by manufacturing. While manufacturing can help a spread of wealth, it usually ends up polluting the earth with carbon emissions making the country not that attractive to tourists. Not only this, many major countries such as China have taken over the manufacturing position in the world. Competing against such countries can lead to detrimental economic status due to their power. It is without a doubt that the best option would be to allow the country to choose themselves to go into services or manufacturing.

  • Milam
    Milam November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Germany
    Committee: United Nations Development Programme
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage
    Delegate: Jacob Milam
    School: Williamston High School

    In a competitive global economy, nations are becoming behind in the move towards economic stability. For many nations there has been a clear cut path as to how to build up their economy, and most had begun to do so not to long ago in history during the time of the industrial revolution. However, there have been countries who missed the opportunity and are now striving to catch up. Germany, being a wealthier nation which prospered with the help of the industrial revolution, has been fortunate enough to be placed in the position where it may help the other nations of the globe which have not been as fortunate. It is undeniably true that when the economy of the global community benefits, we all benefit in the long run.

    Due to our rich history beginning with agriculture in addition to being positioned at the heart of the industrial revolution, Germany was able to pass into the manufacturing stage becoming a key player in the global economy today. Tourism still contributes in large quantities to the German economy, as does the importing and exporting of manufactured goods along with some of the world’s leading innovative technology.

    Being that the United Nations is a global body, we have a unique opportunity to help our fellow nations in need. The United Nations has devoted its attention and resources to promoting living standards and human skills and potential throughout the world. Since 2000, this work has been guided by the Millennium Development Goals. Virtually all funds for UN development assistance come from contributions donated by countries. Furthermore, the United Nations has provided the “soft infrastructure” for the global economy by negotiating universally accepted technical standards in such diverse areas as statistics, trade law, customs procedures, intellectual property, aviation, shipping and telecommunications, facilitating economic activity and reducing transaction costs. It has laid the groundwork for investment in developing economies by promoting stability and good governance, battling corruption and urging sound economic policies and business-friendly legislation. Already the United Nations has done so much to help countries bypass or even move into the manufacturing stage of development, yet there is so much more that can be done. Germany will be looking for the promotion of economic cooperation and the movement to provide more stable economic and industrial foundations for nations so that they may have a stepping stone to go in the direction that would most suit the needs of their nation as well as their people.

  • Haileyjansen
    Haileyjansen November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: United Nations Development Programme
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: France

    Advanced economic development and success depend on the growth and advancement of the gross domestic product in a specific country at hand. The growth of a nation’s gross domestic product means that the economy of that country is strengthening and the aggregate output as functioning at a higher than average rate. Growth in GDP relies on the amount of profit the country earns in revenue. Manufacturing is an industry that previously brought in copious amounts of revenue for the countries participating, but due to great advances in technology, the manufacturing stage in development is thought to be less and less necessary.
    Many countries, including France, have found that revenue is not dependant upon manufacturing due to the great technological advancements in our society. France recognizes that many developing countries do not have the technological advancements that many developed countries in the world do. France believes that the manufacturing stage in development is a stage that many developed countries can afford to bypass due to their economic stability and advancement, while in other developing countries the manufacturing stage in development is just what they need to form a strong economy and increase the nation’s GDP enabling for future technological advances. France also acknowledges that technologically advanced countries capable of bypassing the stage typically have more skilled workers to fit the criteria of the more intellectually demanding job positions, unlike the developing countries that rely on manufacturing jobs to employ their citizens and provide revenue to the nation.
    The manufacturing stage in development is an important step in the process of economic development and aids in growth of GDP, but technological advances have proven that it is not a necessary stage for all countries.

  • Moisguer18
    Moisguer18 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Moise Guerrier
    Nov 9, 2017
    Model UN

    Country: Azerbaijan
    Country leader: Ilham Aliyev
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

    Azerbaijan is a third world country that has been slow coming into our own for the last 10 years e have been development and a stage of democratic and modern state building in Azerbaijan. An issue in this country is the decline in oil production in Azerbaijan.But now Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli, the enormous field offshore in the Caspian Sea whose development since 1994 has spurred Baku’s most recent oil boom, is moving into terminal decline. this means that the source that was being used ran out. n order to keep our county in working order there will be solution to this problem as we are going to compensate for the decline in the production of crude oil with an increase in the production of gas and condensate from other fields.

    The nation of Azerbaijan’s Position in bypassing manufacturing of development we believe as a country we just getting started into this development stage we have much to do in order to reach a point f at least as developed other big country such as the nited tates. therefore these are the thing that we going to get there investing in treads, developing our industry and manufacturing, more jobs, and last but not least which the most important part of industrializing a country is upgrading our technology. That will be the key to Azerbaijan future.

  • Leahpalladino
    Leahpalladino November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Republic of India
    Leah Palladino

    India’s economy is primarily based on providing services and has successfully bypassed the manufacturing stage of development. Generally, a nation begins as an agrarian economy and develops to become reliant on manufacturing business. Contrary to this traditional development, India has transferred from agriculture to a service based economy. India is one of the many countries involved with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The UNDP works in about 170 countries to help find solutions to global challenges. To assist the general circumstances around the world, the UNDP created 17 goals to attain by 2030. These are called the Sustainable Development Goals. These goals have already been implemented in and supported by many countries to assist in development. Two of the goals that can be influenced by economic structure are the goals of climate change and quality education.

    India is a shining example of a successful transfer from agrarian to service-based economy while avoiding the manufacturing stage. India has attained the sixth highest GDP in the world. Technological advances have assisted in the rapid success of this industry, allowing for outsourcing and more service jobs. On the other side of the economic structure, China is the largest manufacturing economy. There are extreme downsides of manufacturing, such as emitting pollutants and carbon in the atmosphere. Harmful emissions have become increasingly evident in the past decade. China emits unparallel amounts of carbon into the atmosphere; 10,641,789 kt of carbon in 2015. This was greater than the United States and the European Union combined. India is working with the UNDP to assist in climate and environment action. India has passed numerous legislation, such as the Air Act of 1981, to improve the quality of air and to prevent and control air pollution in the country. Additionally, India strongly believes in investing in education and health, which is one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Because a skilled workforce is imperative to a service based economy, India is working to provide quality education to its citizens. For example, India has received $2 billion dollars from the World Bank to be used towards education. Sustainable development is the overall agenda for the UNDP. It is imperative to global and national development. As Helen Clark, the UNDP Administrator, said in 2015,“This agreement marks an important milestone in putting our world on an inclusive and sustainable course. If we all work together, we have a chance of meeting citizens’ aspirations for peace, prosperity, and well-being, and to preserve our planet.”

    India resolves that more countries should take the approach of bypassing the manufacturing stage of development. India has proven the success of this strategy. They emit fewer pollutants than countries in the manufacturing business and work to educate as many citizens as possible to have the most successful, skilled workforce for the service-based economy. India would like to address that more countries consider bypassing the manufacturing stage, as all countries are experiencing the effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and are 50 percent higher than they were in 1991. Concerned about the effects of manufacturing on the world, India is signatory to the Sustainable Development Goals. India proposes that the United Nations implement legislation to restrict emissions across the world, develop sustainability in heavily manufacturing countries, and that more countries limit the drastic effects of manufacturing.

  • Yang099
    Yang099 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee : Developmental Programme
    Topic : Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country : Peru

    In the past three decades, Peru has experienced a rather progressive economic structural change. From agrarian sector, the service sector becomes the main contributor to GDP, taking about 60 percent of it. On the other hand, Peru was far from a country which has a strong base on manufacturing industry. Our manufacturing makes up around 15 percent of our GDP, which even has been gradually decreased since the 1990s. However, Peru is now seeking an ultimate growth in our manufacturing.

    Currently, Peru has the world’s largest fishmeal industry which is closely related to nation’s leading agrarian industry, fishing. Also, Peru has a strong textile and apparel industry. Our textile industry alone employs approximately 250,000 people. Additionally, our textiles and garments take up more than 30 percent of the non-traditional exports in Peru. As we mentioned, Peru truly possesses a potential develop and extend its manufacturing to the world. Thus, we decided to invest to advance our manufacturing sector.

    To develop its manufacturing, Peru decided to focus on trade. With Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador, Peru signed The U.S. Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) in 1991, which reduced tariff in trade between Andean countries and the U.S. We further expanded it to Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act. The Act provides duty-free access to US markets for approximately 5,600 products. Over the United States, Peru is willing to have more connection with other countries. However, Peru does not have a strong business connection with the rest of the world yet. Through constant trade with other nations, we expect to gain monetary benefit and many of our unskilled workers to get employed, which will bring ultimate economic advancement to us. But, first of all, we need an opportunity to meet and have a connection with other countries.

    Peru believes that each nation has a right to choose its own economic model. However, a weak base in manufacturing industry will eventually create several problems in the future, such as unemployment of uneducated workers and growing inequality in a standard of living. Peru suggests other countries, especially other South American countries, to join the movement of reviving manufacturing industry. To facilitate the movement, we ask UNDP to create a better condition and more opportunity for the trade of South America, including us, with the rest of world.

  • Moonjos
    Moonjos November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country:Italy
    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Joey Mooney
    Throughout the history of the nation of Italy, manufacturing has played a major role in creating a fluid economy. It has become one of the main backbones of our nation’s success and created many jobs for a strong working class. While passing on the stage of manufacturing has proven to be successful for nations like India, if the entire world began to rely solely on services, then the economy of the globe as a whole would be crippled. This system may be beneficial to the economy of some nations, there needs to be an even flow of manufacturing goods with providing services. This is one of the key roles of Italy in the economy of the world having been one of the leading manufacturers of automobiles since the 1950s. The need for physical goods may be just as important in the growth of a nation as providing services to carry out these services. Manufacturing goods doesn’t require as much of a skilled work force as well which is essential to the carrying out of good services. This is one of the foundations of the economies of nations that heavily rely on exports of manufactured goods and supply the other countries with what they need from the step that they skipped in the development of their nation. The employment rate of a country begins to skyrocket and sets a path for a more developed nation turning into more service reliant and creating multiple classes. Because of the variety of skill, there can still be a good working class that supports and functions as a foundation for the more skilled and developed service class.

  • Neils-M
    Neils-M November 15, 2017 Reply

    The Kingdom of Belgium has a strong interest in the economic development of new economies. The Belgian Development Cooperation is a world leader in the coordination and stimulation of economies around the world. The possibility of bypassing the manufacturing stage of economic development is certainly a promising one, as evidenced by the success of service-based economies in countries such as India and Senegal. In addition to economic stimulation, the bypassing of the manufacturing stage allows for nations to avoid the pollution and other environmental concerns often linked to rudimentary manufacturing economies. An escape from the common reliance of developing economies on cheap, dirty energy such as coal has the potential to reduce one of the world’s biggest sources of carbon emissions- the manufacturing sectors of young economies. On the other hand, the manufacturing stage often provides an opportunity to evenly distribute the wealth from a growing economy as there are a variety of positions for both high-skilled and low-skilled labor. The bypassing of the manufacturing stage has the potential to cause many areas of the economies of developing countries to be left behind and result in difficult wealth disparities.

    A key component of the Belgian Development Cooperation is the case by case nature of economic development. Each country has different economic drivers and need, and therefore a unique approach must be taken to develop each economy. As both the potential benefits and the potential drawbacks of bypassing the manufacturing stage of development are clear, the Kingdom of Belgium believes that it is important to follow this same case by case approach when working to institute it into developing economies. The same program of development will not work in every case, and it is therefore dangerous to institute overreaching development programs on a level as specific as this. The Kingdom of Belgium therefore believes that the role of the United Nations in the bypassing of the manufacturing stage of development should be the support of nations and economies which choose to take this path and the creation of oversight to ensure that economic development is benefitting all members of the country in question, and not at the cost of human rights.

  • HarrisonCentner
    HarrisonCentner November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Kingdom of Norway
    Harrison Karl Centner

    Technological advances have provided emerging economies with the ability to expedite and even circumvent the manufacturing period in the evolution of an economy. India, for example, has transferred directly from an agrarian society to one of service and consumerism. The increasing frequency of this atypical development proposes its own set of problems. Developing countries’ labor based economies provide raw materials and finished goods to established service-based economies. Ultimately, this stage leads to the devastation of the environment. Pollutants, such as carbon emissions, are inimical to the environment and human persons; they cause climate change which affects all continents and all nations. A majority of these pollutants are produced in factories during the manufacturing stage of development. Bypassing this period is beneficial to the biosphere, however, in doing so, a middle class, generally formed during an economies’ manufacturing period, is not established and therefore wealth disparity increases. All countries must recognize the rights of their citizens as listed in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Determining whether advancing directly to a service economy is an achievable course for attaining sustainable development, as well as the prevention of the aforementioned scenarios must be the top priority of this United Nations Committee. So, the government of Norway sees industrialization and manufacturing as a bad thing? This is official government policy. Remember: you are the government of Norway. You are the voice of Norway. Make sure you are writing in this first paragraph about the worldwide issues of this topic from the Norwegian POV. Answer the 6 basic questions: who, what, why, where, when and how.

    Protecting the environment, as well as assuring that all persons are cared, for no matter their income, is of the utmost importance to Norway. In circumventing the industrial stage of an economy the environment can be protected from lethal pollutants. Norway’s commitment to the conservation of the environment has been substantiated by their continuous support and advocacy to prevent climate change. Recently, the
    Norwegian government proposed to allocate three billion Norwegian Kroner(Approximately 350,000,000 US Dollars) in next year’s budget to help preserve rainforests (Ministry of Climate and Environment). “Preserving rainforests is one of the
    most effective things we can do to stop climate change,” says Minister of Climate and Environment, Vidar Helgesen. Strides to better defend the planet from climate change have also occurred domestically. In a monumental accord, the Norway and the food industry have agreed to halve food waste by 2030. This binding consensus is in concurrence with and exceeds UN sustainability goal 12.3. Norway, however, acknowledges that the manufacturing phase can be crucial in the establishment of a middle class and driving workforce. Ergo, if a country’s development follows a nontraditional path, quality education is a desideratum for averting the greater divergence of wealth. All nations ought to ascertain whether bypassing the manufacturing stage in development composes a possible path towards sustainable development.

    In itself, proceeding directly to a service economy is not a sustainable route for development. Nonetheless, in conjunction with equal and quality education, this method of growth could
    provide a very effective way for nations to sustainably develop. In order for this type of maturation, governments need to implement adequate education for all its citizens as is their right listed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Countries also need to recognize climate change and encourage efforts to end it. Norway petitions for a resolution that will encourage countries to bypass the industrial stage, so to prevent further climate change, as well as increased funding for education in developing countries so to reduce any wealth disparity. Explicitly, Norway wishes to allocate money, for the purpose of education, to developing countries bypassing industry. Finally, Norway urges this committee to propose all nations allot funds in order to meet sustainability goals 1, 4, 7, and 13. In accomplishing this, The Kingdom of Norway hopes to protect individual rights while maintaining a stable climate.

  • Claireverb
    Claireverb November 15, 2017 Reply

    United Nations Development Programme
    Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Afghanistan
    Claire Verbrugge

    With economies bypassing the manufacturing stage of development more than ever, nations are beginning to depend on services and imports rather than manufacturing goods for themselves. The United Kingdom and France, with approximately eighty percent of their labor force being services, are just a few examples of the many service-driven economies. Agriculture is the backbone of an economy and provides many jobs for people especially located in rural areas which makes up over seventy percent of Afghanistan’s citizens. The United Nations Development Programme is striving to make stable and strong economies for all countries, starting with promoting sustainable development. The current president of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani, is fighting for a more important and reliable government through treaties and partnership with UNDP. Despite the takeover of the Taliban prior to 2001, the Afghanistan government has made considerable progress in life expectancy, literacy, and incomes. In 2001, only one million children went to school, but now over eight million are getting an education. Also, the life expectancy has jumped from fifty-five years old to sixty-one years old from the times of the Taliban. In order for countries to stabilize their economy, the UNDP must address and encourage globalization and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGs of the UNDP that pertain most to an economic structure are climate change and general sustenance within a country. Afghanistan is working to achieve agriculture that is more environmentally friendly.

    Afghanistan understands that stabilizing economies is an issue that the UN must make a priority to correct, and with the government and economy still recovering from the Taliban rule, Afghanistan’s government still has changes to be made. Working with India and Iran, Afghanistan, in 2016, signed an agreement to allow Indian goods to connect to Afghanistan through Iran. This agreement will help trade flow and increase GDP in the three nations economies. With UNDP and Afghanistan partnered in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, extensive improvements have been made to better the economy and lives of the Afghan citizens. Environmentally, the UNDP has created a Climate Change Adaptation Project which provides more eco-friendly options for manufacturing industries such as building greenhouses, and environment-friendly farms in Afghanistan. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure are some of the many goals of the UNDP. Infrastructure and Innovation are crucial to have a successful economy and with the UNDP building bridges and industries, Afghanistan’s economy is already making progress. Another Sustainable Development Goal would be decent work and economic growth. Improving entrepreneurship and job creation will help improve economies and increase importation and exportations.

    Afghanistan proposes that in order to stabilize many nation’s economies, the UNDP must promote globalization and driven economies. Working on completing the Sustainable Development Goals will raise poverty rates, increase eco-friendly industries, and much more. The biggest challenge for Afghanistan is finding sustainable sources of growth, with the UNDP’s assistance, Afghanistan, and many other countries would improve their economies immensely. With poverty rates globally high, an immediate address to the situation would be needed. A resolution that increases unity and encourages trade will help economies ameliorate and maintain a sustainable and well-established economy. Afghanistan resolves that the UNDP should provide assistance to struggling countries in order to grow and support their country’s economies.

  • Charliej1221
    Charliej1221 November 15, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UNDP
    Country: Laos
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Delegate: Charlotte Howald
    School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

    Recently growing industry suggests that it would be beneficial to establish new relationships with the country of Laos. By continuing to invest and promoting prior investments, international sources have the ability to stimulate economic growth through industry. Laos is rich in natural resources, with many of life’s essential basic necessities as surplus products. However, what Laos lacks is mainly in a transportation disadvantage. With geographical obstacles, Laos is left one step short from benefitting greatly from international cooperation. Located at a distance from the sea and any significant body of water, there is little opportunity to transport goods at a profit to the Laotian people.

    The country also struggles in forming manufacturing centers in which it would be possible to transform the surplus resources into products that are major imports of other countries in need. Should Laos receive a surge of industrial investments, the government would finally have the power to establish the corporations it requires to mass produce goods. The products would be made on such a great scale that producers would have excess. Goods would no longer go solely to the immediate use of citizens, and would then benefit outside countries. With such a high demand for resources and products, such as the need for wood in Thailand, Laos would benefit both its own economy and that of international sources.

    The country of Laos very much looks forward to working with other delegates of the world in hopes of an equal distribution economic success and prosperity.

  • avatar image
    Alex Shier November 15, 2017 Reply

    Country: Republic of Korea
    Committee: United Nations Development Program
    Topic Area: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development

    Since the Industrial Revolution, a nation typically goes through three stages of economic development. The initial agrarian-based economy evolves into a manufacturing and export focus stage, and then finally reaches the final stage of development: a service-based economy. This transformation has been a staple in society for 250 odd years. While skipping manufacturing may seem like a great idea, there are many issues with this idea.
    The consequences would be a significantly lower rate of employment and an unskilled workforce. We can negate this through the UN Millennium Development Goals, which the ROK supports. Some of the goals are universal primary education, which would diminish the repercussions of an unskilled workforce, and eradicating extreme poverty, which would serve the same function as the higher living standards created by a labor based economy. We believe that we should begin implementing these goals in developing nations, so that future nations can skip this stage and still reap benefits from it. During our manufacturing stage of development, our people and living standards would have fallen far below par if it wasn’t for the UNDP. Thanks to their intervention through 275 programmes, the ROK has been saved from becoming a human rights disaster.
    During our time here, the ROK will support any resolution that reaffirms the importance and necessity of the Millennium Development Goals in order to close the gap that would be caused by the skip. This way, we can continue the growth of the global economy now, while thinking of the future generations.The human race has always advanced through the development of its policies, and the ROK believes that to continue this trend, we must begin thinking about the future, but be mindful of the implausibility to accomplish it today’s developing nations.

  • avatar image
    Richard Li November 16, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: The Kingdom of Spain
    Delegate: Richard LI

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) intends to assist developing countries in creating more service-based economies so as to help nations to surpass the manufacturing stage. Besides, a service-based economy would also encourage sustainable economic growth.
    Spain currently has the fourteenth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and ranks tenth according to the Economist in quality of life. Spain is a nation whose economy doesn’t heavily rely on manufacturing, but services, particularly in tourism. Spain ranks second in travel and has a high ease of doing business, ranking 32nd (The World Factbook). Spain considers good trade relationships as a significant reason why it has had a strong economy. Although Spain had major economic setbacks, Spain has been able to recover in recent years. Spain credits the EU restructure and recapitalization of their countries financial sector (Spain: Financial Sector Reform—Second Progress Report). Spain is part of the Eurozone. Using the Euro has allowed Spain to have a more comfortable time trading with other countries (Worstall, Tim). Spain has been in agreement with the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the past and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) both supporting sustainable economic development for developing nations (United Nations Millennium Development Goals).
    Spain suggests that other nations should focus on diversification of economics. Spain believes tourism is one of the best industries to generate money for a country. Spain believes the best way to encourage tourism includes developing social media for countries to attract foreign tourists to visit their country (Brenner, Laurie). Lastly, Spain believes nations need to restructure and recapitalize their financial sector to improve a country’s economy (Spain: Financial Sector Reform—Second Progress Report).
    Works Cited
    Brenner, Laurie. “How to Successfully Promote Tourism.” Biz Fluent, Leaf Group Ltd., 26 Sept. 2017.
    “Spain: Financial Sector Reform—Second Progress Report .” Mar. 2013.
    “The World Factbook .” World Factbook Title, Central Intelligence Agency, 8 Nov. 2017.
    “United Nations Millennium Development Goals.” United Nations, United Nations.
    Worstall, Tim. “Spain’s Shining Economic Recovery: Or, How The Eurozone Defines Success Down.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 16 Apr.

  • Xochitl
    Xochitl November 16, 2017 Reply

    Country: Rwanda
    committee: UNDP
    topic: Bypassing the manufacturing stage
    school: Kalamazoo central HS
    Economy is built on trade, value, and development. It is our belief as Rwanda that to achieve a stable economy, a specific way to get to these blocks are not entirely necessary as long as they can still be met. By skipping the manufacturing stage of development, this does not mean that an economy will be weak or unstable necessarily, our own country is agriculturally based. This has helped boost our economy and helped us provide a better standard of living for our population. The goal of each country is to achieve a homeostasis where there is a steady rate of growth and population development. We as a nation are trying to develop forward as opposed to regression, if this means skipping the manufacturing stage of development for a time, then we will do whatever is necessary to keep our population fulfilled. As far as other countries go, based on Rwanda’s own experience with it, we find that this model of development could sustain other nations as well.

  • avatar image
    Maddie Meyer November 16, 2017 Reply

    Committee: UNDP
    Topic: Bypassing the Manufacturing Stage of Development
    Country: Brazil
    Delegate: Maddie Meyer

    As a developing nation with the largest economy in South America and one of the fastest growing in the world, Brazil has found its strength through the service sector of its economy. The service sector comprises of approximately 67% of Brazil’s GDP, with the industrial sector comprising 27.5% and agriculture 5.5%. About 71% of Brazil’s labor force is employed in the service sector, making this a very important part of Brazil’s economy. Even with this focus on service, Brazil has the third largest manufacturing sector in the Americas, making both manufacturing and service crucial parts of Brazil’s economy. As such, Brazil supports other developing nations who choose to go into the service sector, however, it warns against passing over manufacturing completely. This is because manufacturing can provide a stable foundation for a more service-oriented economy and is very important in order to avoid issues such as the disparity of wealth found in the economies of countries without manufacturing sectors. Overall, Brazil looks forward to working with other nations to find ways to prevent problems such as the wealth disparity in developing nations that skip the manufacturing stage. Brazil hopes to be able to create programs to help these countries develop, without leaving any of their citizens behind.

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